All plants

Abutilon 'Ines'

A new Pan-Global' intro from the USA, making a small to medium shrub, about 1.5m high and wide. Flowers are a lovely combo of soft yellowish-cream petals, backed by dusky, brick-red calyces, and are seen throughout summer. One of the hardiest varieties, though best sited sensibly for most of us, preferably with wall shelter. A hybrid of A. megapotamicum.

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Abutilon 'Orange Hot Lava'

A new intro from the USA, this is a superb A. megapotamicum hybrid forming a compact multistemmed plant approx' 1m or more high. A mass of orange bells, net-veined in red and with a prominent brick-red calyx, are produced over a long period from July until frosts. Hardy with the shelter of a warm wall.

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Abutilon 'Patrick Synge'

A vigorous hybrid potentially reaching about 3m on a sheltered wall. Attractive green foliage provides a good backing to the sumptuously coloured, dangling, party dress shaped flowers; seen over a long period. Petals are a glowing red-orange with a deep purple-red interior, backed by a soft, matt, red-brown calyx. Survived Jan 09 outside here!

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Acacia baileyana 'Purpurea'

Unique and highly ornamental large shrub or small tree for a sheltered site in full sun. Light grey-blue leaves with new growth plum-purple through the growing season. Golden yellow 'Mimosa' flowers in early spring. Easy in a pot, can be hard pruned every year. Takes a fair amount of frost, though is best sited sensibly. My best selling plant by far.

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Acacia baileyana 'Purpurea'

Unique and highly ornamental large shrub or small tree for a very sheltered site in full sun. Bright blue-green leaves with new growth deep plum-purple through the growing season. Golden yellow 'Mimosa' flowers in early spring. Easy in a pot, can be hard pruned every year. Takes a fair amount of frost, though is best sited sensibly. My best selling plant by far.

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Acacia boormanii

Snowy River Wattle. A most lovely species and fairly hardy too. Foliage on this one is a feathery mass of very, very narrow linear grey-green leaves (phyllodes). Makes a large shrub, covered in panicles of scented, lemon-yellow mimosa flowers in early spring. Worthy of a sheltered location but survived winter 2010 near here! Very rarely offered in the UK.

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Acacia boormanii

Snowy River Wattle. A most lovely species and fairly hardy too. Foliage on this one is a feathery mass of very, very narrow linear grey-green leaves (phyllodes). Makes a large shrub, covered in panicles of scented, lemon-yellow mimosa flowers in early spring. Worthy of a sheltered location. Very rarely offered in the UK.

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Acacia dealbata 'Gaulois Astier'

A form of the species selected by the southern French 'Mimosa' cut flower industry for its particularly good bunches of scented sulphur-yellow flowers. The leaves are much greener and with more substantial leaflets than the var. subalpina. In most areas of the UK this would be best planted in a sheltered position, backed by a wall, where it'll bloom late winter.

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Acacia dealbata var. subalpina

The hardiest form of true mimosa, originally collected at high altitude. A vigorous, evergreen small tree to be tried in a sheltered spot, covered in clouds of bright yellow, scented flowers in late winter. Beautiful ferny, grey-green foliage. Can be hard pruned, coppiced or pollarded. Will often sprout from the base if cut back by a very hard winter.

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Acacia pataczekii

Only described in 1978 from a discovery in the cool highlands of Tasmania, 'Wally's Wattle' is the hardiest of all Acacias, known to tolerate as low as -18c! A large evergreen shrub or very small tree here in the UK, with a dense bushy crown of linear blue-green leaves (actually phyllodes) and a mass of pale yellow little balls of flower in late winter. Most rare!

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Acanthus spinosus Spinosissimus Group (new)

Exceptionally deeply divided and particularly spiny, rich green leaves on this most extreme expression of the species from the drier end of its wild range. Spires of soft mauve and white hooded flowers in summer if in full sun, but a splendid mound of textured foliage in any case. Height 120cm.

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Acer campbellii subsp. campbellii

Found at 3050m asl in NE Kachin State, Burma. In cultivation this makes a medium sized tree with 5 to 7 lobed leaves expanding red and turning to yellow in autumn. Best sited in a sheltered position like open woodland where it will be hardy throughout most of the UK. V. rare in cultivation.

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Acer campbellii subsp. campbellii NJM 12.069

This was found at 2730m asl, smack on the Burmese border in E Manipur, NE India, in full autumn golden leaved glory. In cultivation it makes a medium sized tree with 5 to 7 lobed leaves expanding red and turning to yellow in autumn. Best sited in a sheltered position like open woodland where it will be hardy throughout most of the UK. V. rare in cultivation.

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Acer campestre 'Evenley Red'

A new form of our native 'field maple' from Northamptonshire, selected by Tim Whitely for its consistently good red autumn colour, which is a rather unusual colour for this species. As ever this will make an easy small tree, eventually growing, over very many years, to make a medium tree. Tough as old boots.

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Acer carpinifolium

The Hornbeam Maple from Japan is most unmaple-like in foliage, until of course you get to know all the other unmaple-like Acers. This makes a small to perhaps medium sized tree with wide spreading branches and simple foliage, much like a common hornbeam, but more elongated and with a drip-tip, turning gold and brown in autumn. Easy and hardy.

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Acer flabellatum NJM 11.017

Collected from Leigong Shan, Guizhou, China at 1900m asl, this handsome deciduous maple makes a sometimes shrubby small tree in cultivation with seven lobed foliage. The foliage turns to yellow shades in autumn.

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Acer griseum

The Paper Bark Maple is one of the most attractive of all small trees with a very long season of interest. Very beautiful cinnamon-orange bark peeling off in thin papery pieces, and fine, yellow orange and red autumn colour are its principal attractions. Very tolerant and easy even on thin chalky soils. Not fast but lovely even when small.

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Acer laevigatum NJM 10.049

Found on Tay Con Linh mountain, almost on the Chinese border in N. Vietnam at 1800m alt., this small semi-evergreen maple has long taper pointed, unlobed foliage that emerges deep red. Requiring a sheltered site in not overly cold areas.

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Acer pectinatum (new)

Hailing from the highest peak in Indochina, this was collected originally as A. campbellii var. fansipanense. Whatever, it is very handsome in leaf with broad 3 to 5 lobed leaves on red petioles, turning to shades of orange and gold in autumn. Best sited in a sheltered position like open woodland where it will be hardy throughout most of the UK.

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Acer pentaphyllum (new)

One of the most attractive of all maples yet critically endangered in its wild home, where there is just one small population left in W. Sichuan, China. The extremely beautiful leaves, on long slender scarlet petioles, are uniquely fully divided to the base with five very slim, linear-lanceolate segments, green above and pale glaucous beneath. Can take at least -10c.

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Acer sikkimense NJM 10.134 (new)

A collection of this very colourful maple from the temperate forests of the far north of Vietnam at 2040m asl. Most handsome when in new growth with the ovate, unlobed leaves emerging a glistening dark purple-red, expanding to green above and rich red below. Best suited to milder parts of the British Isles. Makes a small to medium tree.

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Acer sterculiaceum subsp. franchetii

A remarkable hardy Himalayan maple, with very large leaves flushed red when emerging and predominantly three lobed in adulthood. Racemes of large yellow-green flowers in spring followed by drooping clusters of substantial fruits on females. Males have attractive red flowers. A fairly big tree eventually, happiest in a reasonably wind sheltered position.

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Acer sterculiaceum subsp. sterculiaceum NJM 13.087 (new)

A collection from Nagaland, with large leaves flushed red when emerging and predominantly five lobed. Racemes of large yellow-green flowers in spring followed by drooping clusters of substantial fruits on females. Males have attractive red flowers. A fairly big tree eventually, happiest in a reasonably wind sheltered position.

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Acer triflorum

One of the Far Eastern trifoliate maples, with three leaflets per leaf, its relatives include such superb species as A. griseum and A. maximowiczianum. This one has characteristic pale grey-brown, flaking bark and some of the best autumn foliage colour of any tree, usually being a brilliant scarlet-orange. A slow growing very hardy small tree.

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Acer wardii (new)

Found at 3110m asl in NE Kachin, Burma, this extremely rare maple is virtually never offered for sale. A small elegant tree with relatively small three lobed leaves, each lobe ending in a drawn out tip. Autumn colour is bright red in full sun, orange to yellow if shaded. This should be hardy in most places most of the time, but better in mild areas come Armageddon.

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Acer x conspicuum 'Phoenix'

A snake-bark maple predominantly for winter effect, when the bare shoots glow in a ridiculously bright red, with white stripes. It is, however, an all-round handsome tree with bold foliage, turning clear yellow in autumn, and a beautiful habit, forming a spreading small tree for most soils. The older stems and trunk turn, over time, to a light orange-pink.

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Acis (Leucojum) autumnale

Snowflake. Flowers like tiny snowdrops in autumn. White with just a hint of red-pink as they join the stem. Very narrow foliage. 15cm. Sun and drainage; rock garden / path edge.

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Aconitum 'Shiroi Blue'

We found this still to be identified species around the summit of Shiroi Peak, Manipur, growing with Lilium mackliniae in open grassland. Flowering in autumn, the spikes of intense purple-blue reached about 50cm in the wild but would probably be higher in cultivation. For sun or semi-shade.

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Acradenia frankliniae

A very unusual evergreen from Tasmania. This Choisya relative makes an upright small to medium sized shrub with dainty three fingered aromatic foliage and flat clusters of white flowers in May, and occasionally again in autumn. Very hardy in cold inland gardens through the cold of Jan and Dec 2010, but best sited with some shelter.

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Actaea simplex 'Black Négligée'

Leaves emerge green and then turn almost black, perfectly offsetting tall spikes of scented white flowers, in late summer. 150cm. Part shade or sun, but always just moist soil.

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Actaea simplex 'Pink Spike'

Leaves emerge green and then turn almost black, perfectly offsetting tall spikes of scented pink tinged white flowers, in late summer. 120cm. Part shade or sun, with better foliage colour in better light, but always just moist soil.

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Actinidia arguta 'Ananasnaya' (new)

A Russian form developed under Stalin, but virtually unheard of in the UK. This vigorous climber, closely related to Kiwi fruit, bears large crops of fragrant, tangy, pineapple flavoured, grape-like fruit in autumn. With thin smooth skins there is no need to peel them, unlike kiwi fruit. Very hardy and best in a sunny spot in the UK. Needs a mate like 'Issai' for pollination.

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Actinidia arguta 'Issai' (new)

This vigorous deciduous climber, closely related to Kiwi fruit, bears large crops of fragrant, tangy, pineapple flavoured, grape-like fruit in autumn. With thin smooth green skins there is no need to peel them, unlike kiwi fruit. Very hardy and best in a sunny spot in the UK, this form is self pollinating and needs no mate.

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Actinidia kolomikta 'Dr Szymanowski'

Best known for its striking naturally variegated foliage in pink, white and green, this female clone bears delicious mini 'kiwi' fruit in Aug/Sept, following the sweetly scented creamy flowers in spring. Easy and hardy reaching about 5m with suitable support. Sun or semi-shade.

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Actinidia tetramera var. maloides (A. pilosula of horticulture)

A lovely, vigorous climber from China, with narrow, taper pointed leaves tipped with a conspicuous, variably sized pure white blotch, as if dipped in paint. Coral-pink saucer shaped flowers in spring. Climbs by twining stems so needs support. Sun or semi-shade and any reasonable soil. Until now, wrongly known as A. pilosula; a different Chinese species.

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Acystopteris taiwaniana (new)

A particularly rare fern from the mountains of Taiwan, producing very finely divided light green tripinnate deciduous fronds to 30cm tall from a gently running rootstock. This should have a good hardiness and is suited to friable humus rich soil in shade

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Aesculus californica

'Californian Buckeye'. A superb, but totally neglected, very dwarf Horse Chestnut making a small spreading tree with fragrant white flowers tinted pink in dense erect panicles in mid summer. Small, neat, very attractive foliage emerges very early in the season, though is not affected by frost. Hardy and drought tolerant. In my top 10 trees.

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Aesculus pavia 'Purple Spring' (new)

This form of the US native Red Buckeye starts its season with attractive, long lasting bronze-purple flushed foliage before the upright panicles of peachy-pink flowers are seen in early summer. Slow growing, making a large shrub to about 2m eventually. Best in a sunny spot for optimal flowering. Very hardy

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Agapanthus 'Black Pantha'

A very richly coloured evergreen type with rounded heads of deep violet-blue flowers opening from very dark buds on stems to 90cm in late summer. For a sunny position in a sheltered border, or in a pot overwintered under glass. This was raised originally as a seedling from open pollinated A. praecox. subsp. orientalis 'Blue', so won't be the hardiest.

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Agapanthus 'Windsor Grey'

A rare and choice African Lily cultivar. Huge heads of dove-grey flowers in summer. Height 1m. Sun.

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Agastache 'Black Adder'

Vertical spikes of lavender-purple flowers emerging from very dark buds over a long period from mid to late summer/early autumn. Beloved of butterflies etc, this is a drought resistant plant for well drained soil in sun. Height to 80cm.

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Agave atrovirens var. mirabilis F&M 245

One of the very largest of all Agave, forming extremely handsome rosettes over 4m across and 2.5m high. A gargantuan beast from the cool, moist highlands of east central Mexico, this certainly takes a few degrees of frost, but more importantly it will be very moisture tolerant. Very rare in cultivation.

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Agave ovatifolia NJM 09.002

The 'whale tongue agave' was officially described in only 2002, this new species from the far north east corner of Mexico is, without question, one of the most stunning of all. Very chunky perfectly formed rosettes, 120cm across by 90cm tall at their maximum, are composed of icy-blue, very deeply scalloped leaves. Proven one of the hardiest and easiest in the garden. Fabuloso!

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Agave parrasana

From the Sierra de Parras in the middle of the Chihuahuan desert, this is related to A. parryi, though it has a look all its own. Even at maturity this is a stubby, squat, spiny little beast, with relatively wide leaves compared to their length and a height of only about 30cm. The foliage is bluish-grey with hooked lateral spines. Pretty hardy, but best in a pot.

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Agave parryi - Stoneman Lake, AZ

A form of this potentially very hardy species collected near Stoneman Lake, Arizona, 6600ft alt, representing one of the coldest provenances. This form makes large, relatively open rosettes of fairly slim, bright, somewhat milky-blue-grey leaves with contrasting black end spines. Try this outside in maximum drainage, where it should be very hardy.

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Agave parryi Large form

Seed collected from unusually large plants, with rigid, broad leaves in dense rosettes of up to 1.2m across at over 7000ft in New Mexico at the North Eastern corner of its natural range. These should cope with cold down to minus 28c if dry, and will do perfectly well outside in the UK in very well drained conditions This is most probably referable to the var. huachucensis.

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Akebia longeracemosa BSWJ 3606

A collection from N. Taiwan. This makes a vigorous twining climber with semi-evergreen leaves composed of 5 slim leaflets. The scented blackish-maroon flowers are borne in pendulous racemes to 15cm long in spring. Purplish sausage shaped fruits can follow in autumn. A very hardy species surviving unscathed here at -14c. Sun or semi-shade.

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Akebia quinata 'Amethyst'

A fast growing, semi-evergreen, twining climber for sun or semi-shade. Pale amethyst-purple, sweetly scented flowers in early summer, sometimes followed by big, lilac-purple, sausage shaped fruit in autumn if pollinated by another clone. The attractive compound palmate leaves are divided into five leaflets. Vigorous hardy and easy.

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Alangium platanifolium

A very handsome eastern Asian foliage plant with maple like leaves, and clusters of small but very beautiful flowers in June and July, like little white lilies with recurved petals and yellow stamen, dangling from the undersides of the branches. Eventually a medium sized deciduous shrub or sometimes a small tree. Rarely encountered but hardy and easy.

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Albizia julibrissin 'Rosea'

Unique among foliage plants hardy throughout southern UK and a real taste of warmer climes with its exceptionally beautiful, feathery, Mimosa like foliage and sprays of light pink, fine brush-like fragrant flowers in late summer on a small tree with spreading, layered branches. An absolute gem for a place with reasonable summer warmth. Untouched here Jan '10.

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Albizia julibrissin 'Rouge selection'

A new form of the species selected in France for the very rich flower colour, being a strong red-pink. Exceptionally beautiful, feathery, mimosa like foliage and sprays of fine brush-like fragrant flowers in late summer on a large shrub or small tree with spreading, layered branches. An absolute gem for a warm sunny corner or sheltered courtyard. Likes heat.

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Alchemilla alpina

A tough little arctic-montane perennial forming low clumps of pretty little deeply lobed leaves, each edged with a silvery hairy lining. Yellow flowers in spring/early summer up to 30cm. A much smaller plant than A. mollis for a well drained site in sun or semi shade, excellent at the edge of a border or for self seeding into gravel etc.

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Allium ampeloprasum var. babingtonii

Babington's or Wild leek. Native to the coastline of Cornwall, The Scillies and S. Wales, this is a wild relative of the cultivated leek, Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum. Makes a striking tall bulbous perennial to 1.8m, topped by a globular head of light-purple flowers in summer. Totally edible, the bulbils produced after the flowers are delicious and garlicky.

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Allium chinense

A hardy evergreen clump forming species, the leaves of which are used like chives in Asian cuisine. The bulbs are also eaten, raw or cooked. Terminal heads of deep mauve flowers in Sept/Oct. Sun.

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Allium hookeri 'Zorami'

Leaves used in Asian cooking, and delicious they are too. A vigorous long flowering clone recently found in Mizoram, NE India by Paul Barney. Relatively tall robust flowering stems with terminal white drumsticks of flower, a favourite of bees. Flowering into December some years. Hardy. Sun.

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Allium senescens subsp. senescens

German garlic or Broadleaved chives is a pretty little late summer Allium for a sunny well drained site. In this form the flower buds are flushed pink, opening to pale pink flowers in July/Aug. All parts are edible.

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Allium wallichii PAB 2976

Attractive deep-purple flowers on stems to 40cm high from July to October. Used as a vegetable in India, Burma and China; all parts are edible. Excellent for semi-shade conditions and therefore well suited to the 'forest gardening' crowd.

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Alnus subcordata NJM 13.009 (new)

Hailing from the Caucasus and the Hyrcanian forests bordering the Caspian Sea, where we found this growing with Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Parrotia persica, Quercus castaneifolia etc. A very vigorous species making tall characterful specimens in time, with splendid trunks. Broad foliage up to 15cm long. The male catkins are seen very early in the season.

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Amicia zygomeris

A most exotic looking large perennial pea from Mexico, with strong growth to about 2.5m. Pinnate foliage has leaflets with indented tips, giving a very distinct effect. Highly conspicuous large pale green, but heavily purple-red stained, stipules on the stems and large deep yellow pea flowers in late summer, makes for a striking specimen! Absolutely bone hardy in my experience, even through Dec' 2010, without a mulch. Sun.

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Amicia zygomeris

A most exotic looking large perennial pea from Mexico, with strong growth to about2.5m. Pinnate foliage has leaflets with indented tips, giving a very distinct effect. Highly conspicuous large pale green, but heavily purple-red stained, stipules on the stems and large deep yellow pea flowers in late summer, makes for a striking specimen! Absolutely bone hardy in my experience, even through Dec' 2010, without a mulch. Sun.

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Amomyrtus luma

Another of the Chilean myrtles, this one makes a large, dense, aromatic, evergreen shrub or small tree, smothered by a multitude of small white fragrant flowers in May. The small leaves emerge strikingly copper coloured, turning glossy green. The edible berries turn from red to black. Fairly hardy, though needing sensible positioning in cold areas.

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Anemia mexicana (new)

A most unusual fern, from Mexico believe it or not. Known as the Flowering fern for some reason, probably because the totally green fertile fronds rise vertically through the pinnatifid, evergreen, sterile fronds in a somewhat flowery way, though they don't look remotely like flowers, per se. I've seen this in NE Mexico on well drained rather dry sites.

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Anemone hupehensis NJM 11.074

A recent collection we made in Guizhou Province, SW China, were plants were generally pinky-white in flower with the best a beautiful combination of pure white and purple-pink, the petals often nicely spaced, giving a delicate appearance. Height 60cm. Easy in sun or semi-shade, flowering late summer/autumn.

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Anemonopsis macrophylla

A dainty Japanese woodlander; the 2cm, nodding, whitish lavender flowers rise en masse above the foliage in late summer, giving a light, airy appearance to the plant. For humus rich soil in shade, never too dry in summer. Hardy.

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Angelica brevicaulis (new)

From 3000m altitude in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, there is no doubting the hardiness of this species! Making a short stout species in the wild with usually unbranched inflorescences reaching to 1m high, topped by broad distinctive umbels of white flowers. Foliage is composed of broad segments.

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Angelica edulis

From Northern Japan comes this completely perennial species with stems up to 3m in the wild, but about 1.7m if grown in exposure here, so adjust that figure to your conditions accordingly. Big umbels of white flowers on well branched relatively slim stems in summer. Bone hardy, with edible leaves and shoots to boot.

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Angelica hendersonii (new)

Found on the coast of Western North America this has branching stems to 1.5m or more, topped by splendid rounded umbels of creamy white flowers in summer. Foliage is relatively thick textured, woolly underneath, and the whole plant has the feel of a coastal species. Hardy and perennial.

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Angelica sylvestris 'Ebony'

A gently self-sowing biennial with dark-purple washed foliage and grey-pink umbels of flower on stems to 75cm in summer. Sun or semi-shade. Easy.

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Anthericum ramosum

A native of Western and Central Europe, producing a cloud of starry white flowers on branched 80cm stems in summer over grassy foliage. For fertile soil in a sunny position. Very hardy.

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Apios americana

The 'potato bean' is a hardy herbaceous climber from eastern N America with attractive pinnate leaves and clusters of sweet pea-like, reddish, scented flowers in summer on twining stems to 5m, smaller if kept potted. Edible beans follow and the large tuber beneath is also edible. For sun.

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Arachniodes davalliaeformis (new)

From the Southern Japanese islands comes this unusual species with very thick textured, though lacy, dark green fronds to 60cm tall. These are seemingly made of plastic and quite stiffly held, offering a most unusual look in the shade garden. For a sheltered and semi-shaded position in leafy soil, not too wet. Should be hardy across most of the UK.

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Arachniodes standishii (new)

The 'upside-down fern' from Japan and Korea has semi-evergreen, tripinnate, ovate, pale green fronds rather different from most in the genus, which reach up to 90cm. It also has the rather funky appearance of the fronds being upside down, which they are, of course, not. An unusual but hardy and easy fern for a humid semi-shade position in leafy soil.

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Aralia aff. foliolosa NJM 13.061 (new)

Found in the botanically rich Eastern Hills of Manipur, NE India, at 1850m asl, this made a typically spiny specimen with huge bipinnate foliage and heads of black fruit. Expect a specimen up to perhaps 3m tall. Hardiness as yet untested, though undoubtedly hardy in the milder regions of the UK at least.

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Aralia sp. NJM 13.033 (new)

Found in the botanically rich Eastern Hills of Manipur, NE India, at 1822m asl, this made a typically spiny specimen to circa 8m tall, with huge bipinnate foliage and heads of black fruit. Expect a smaller specimen here. Hardiness as yet untested, though undoubtedly hardy in the milder regions of the UK at least.

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Araucaria angustifolia

A 'Monkey Puzzle' relative from cool highland areas of S Brazil, which eventually has a most unique and highly ornamental crown shape, different from A. araucana. This rarity has definite potential across large areas of the British Isles and Europe, surviving -15c in Germany and almost totally unscathed by the hellish January 2010 at Westonbirt arboretum, Glos!

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Arbutus 'Marina'

Named after the Marina area of San Francisco, this is absolutely THE strawberry tree to plant. Wonderful peeling bark, changing from cinnamon-red to sandy-yellow, briefly, in autumn. Large glossy foliage, big clusters of red-stained white flowers in autumn, and vigorous growth. Generally hardy, in any unimproved free draining soil; acid or alkaline.

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Arbutus unedo f. rubra

The red flowered form of the common Strawberry Tree, bearing bunches of bright red-tinged white flowers in autumn simultaneously with the abundant, small, rounded wild strawberry-like fruit. Develops a gnarled appearance after many years with shredding bark. Good for exposed coastal sites but perfectly hardy inland. Suited to acid or alkaline soils.

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Arbutus x andrachnoides

Hybrid Strawberry Tree. Truly one of the loveliest of small evergreen trees and one I would not be without. Very beautiful cinnamon-red peeling bark on usually very picturesque gnarled stems. Clusters of white flowers in late autumn, and strawberry-like, rounded fruit over glossy foliage. Perfectly suited to acid or alkaline soils. Hardy.

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Arctotheca calendula

The Cape Marigold from South Africa needs a sunny well drained position in this country, where it never seems to get as vigorously invasive to cause problems. Bright yellow daises in Gazania style are seen in summer. Tolerant of even very dry sandy soils.

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Ardisia japonica 'Ito Fukurin'

Very new to cultivation here, a variegated Japanese selection of this evergreen non-aggressively mat forming plant for a leafy position in shade. Glossy leaves are grey green with a very fine white margin; the Japanese name meaning 'thread picotee'. Small pink and white star shaped flowers in spring, followed by red fruit in autumn, persisting into winter.

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Argania spinosa

The Argan is endemic to the Souss valley of Morocco and makes particularly picturesque and gnarled specimens, often photographed by tourists with their branches laden with goats. Extremely drought tolerant, this tree's nuts produce one of the worlds finest culinary oils. Try it here against a hot sunny wall. Never offered before in the UK?

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Arisaema costatum

A truly sinister and most impressive beast. The huge veiny trifoliolate leaf stands up to 60cm high, and as it unfolds, there emerges the big, hooded, white-striped, purple flower. From the spathe hangs a long thread that reaches the ground, allowing pollination by ground dwelling creepy-crawlies. Open, well drained, humusy soil in light shade.

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Arisaema ringens

A Cobra lily from the Far East with superb trifoliolate leaves standing 50cm high with bold, broad, glossy leaflets; each leaflet up to about 30cm long with impressed veins. A white striped green and red flowering spathe in this form, with a bulbous hood like Punch's hat. An easy Arisaema for the garden, growing in any well drained soil in semi-shade.

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Aronia x prunifolia 'Nero' (new)

Purple Chokeberry. A large fruited form of this very hardy N American deciduous shrub, reaching 2m tall. Grown equally for its bunches of purple-black fruit in autumn, which contain very high levels of antioxidants, and the arresting scarlet and burgundy autumn leaf colour. Fruit are tart when raw but superb cooked or used in jams etc. Not for shallow chalk.

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Aronia x prunifolia 'Viking' (new)

Purple Chokeberry. A vigorous form of this very hardy N American deciduous shrub, reaching 2m tall. Grown equally for its bunches of purple-black fruit in autumn, which contain very high levels of antioxidants, and the arresting scarlet and burgundy autumn leaf colour. Fruit are tart when raw but superb cooked or used in jams etc. Not for shallow chalk soils.

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Artemisia lactiflora NJM 11.010

Our collection from Guizhou, China. White flowers on rather arching stems, to 120cm, in summer. Bright green foliage emerges variably tinged with darker tones. For sun or part shade. Not dry.

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Artemisia pontica

The alcoholic beverages Absinthe and Vermouth both use this herb to good effect, but I use it to introduce fine textured pale-grey, highly aromatic foliage into the garden. Bone hardy and easy in a sunny position where it will form gently spreading mats of upright short stems to about 75cm, with little creamy yellow flowers in summer.

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Aruncus 'Guinea Fowl' (new)

Ferny foliage and deep red stems set of the creamy-white flowers over a long period in summer. A dwarf form, reaching 45cm in flower. Tough and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Aruncus 'Horatio' (new)

Introduced by the great German breeder Ernst Pagels, this cross between A. aethusifolius and A. dioicus makes a strong bushy clump of fine much divided foliage with red stems ending in branched, open, fingery spikes of cream fluffy flowers in summer. Height 120cm and nearly as much across. Tough and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Arundo donax 'Macrophylla'

Giant reed. A truly gigantic thing, forming big clumps of blue-green towering foliage to 3m+ high. This is the wider leaved form, good for even more exotic effect, with leaves as wide as a good belt, with long tapering tips. Looks great as a backdrop, or even as a frontdrop if you like that sort of thing. Any ordinary soil in full sun.

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Arundo donax 'Macrophylla'

Giant reed. A truly gigantic thing, forming big clumps of blue-green towering foliage to 3m+ high. This is the wider leaved form, good for even more exotic effect, with leaves as wide as a good belt, with long tapering tips. Looks great as a backdrop, or even as a frontdrop if you like that sort of thing. Any ordinary soil in full sun.

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Asarum europaeum

The Wild Spikenard is one of the finest of low ground cover foliage perennials for shade, this makes mats of glossy, kidney shaped, well veined foliage with a wonderfully rounded general look. Odd little hooded dark purple-red flowers in spring. For well drained humusy soil, this reaches about 10cm tall by 30cm across.

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Asparagus filicinus NJM 12.024 (new)

A particularly handsome and relatively small growing species found in Manipur, NE India, with branched stems 50 to 70cm tall, arching over with the weight of the tiny, narrow, linear foliage. Black fruit in autumn. Untried for hardiness as yet, but probably pretty tough as a deciduous herbaceous, this would in any case make a very attractive pot plant for foliage effect.

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Asparagus filicinus PAB 13.457 (new)

A particularly handsome and relatively small growing species found in Nagaland, NE India, with branched stems 50 to 70cm tall, arching over with the weight of the tiny, narrow, linear foliage. Black fruit in autumn. Untried for hardiness as yet, but probably pretty tough as a deciduous herbaceous, this would in any case make a very attractive pot plant for foliage effect.

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Asparagus virgatus

A not too large evergreen species from South Africa with very fine textured foliage on arching stems, reaching about 1m, with thousands of tiny cream flowers and little orange fruit. Drought tolerant, for sun and well drained soil. In my garden it's been perennial, but killed to the ground in very cold winters, sprouting strongly the following spring.

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Astelia 'Silver Shadow'

A cross between A. chathamica and A. nervosa, making an arresting clump of boldly metallic-silver sword shaped foliage 1m high by a little more across. For sun or semi-shade and a reasonably sheltered position from the worst of winter cold. A bold specimen plant for a pot, though best brought under cover in winter if grown in this way.

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Astelia grandis

A broad leaved robust species forming big clumps of taper pointed, textured, strap-like silver-green leaves to 2m tall in the wild, but more like 1.5m here. A swampy grower in nature, but fine in ordinary soils in cultivation if not bone dry. A fine foliage plant, like a more refined Phormium, this is one of the two hardiest Astelia species and hardier than A. chathamica for example.

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Aster 'Primrose Path' (new)

Tough, drought tolerant, even in dry shade, Sprays of lilac flowers with maroon centres in late summer/autumn. Foliage gains red tints through the season. Height approx 50cm.

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Aster ageratoides var. scaberulus

We found this on Leigong Shan, Guizhou, SW China where it grew in the shade of trees, forming perennial plants to 80cm tall which had borne mid-sized white flowers in early autumn. Very suitable for dry shade sites

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Aster laevis 'Calliope'

A fine taller growing Aster with masses of smaller bright lavender flowers on a multitude of vertical black-tinted stems from Sept-Nov. Forms airy mildew free clumps to 1.5m tall. Sun or semi-shade.

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Aster schreberi

Excellent for dry shade, this white flowered species from the USA forms gently spreading clumps to about 60cm high. Flowers June to September over bright green foliage, with no mildew! Hardy.

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Aster x herveyi

A tough and tolerant hybrid, even flowering in dry shade, this old favourite produces masses of bright violet-blue daisies before most other Asters, from mid-July. Handsome heart shaped foliage, devoid of mildew. Height 60cm.

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Asteranthera ovata

A very lovely gesneriad from the forests of S. Chile where it climbs tree trunks on the edge of forest clearings. In this country it requires humidity and leafy soil to prosper, so is good on a sheltered north wall or tree. Raspberry-red tubular flowers with wide spreading lobes appear from June and through the summer. 3-4m. Not for the very coldest areas.

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Astilbe rivularis PAB 5238

A striking, very tall species collected in E Manipur. Bold compound foliage makes a good ground hugging mound of large leaflets, giving rise in autumn to 2m high inflorescences of cream-green flowers in pyramidal, airy, branched heads. A real understated beauty of some size, looking great even in seed. For soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Astilbe rivularis var. myriantha

A striking, very tall species with bold compound foliage making a good mound of large leaflets, giving rise in autumn to 2m high inflorescences of creamy-white flowers in pyramidal, airy, branched heads. A real understated beauty of some size, looking great even in seed. For soil that doesn't get too dry. This form originated in Sichuan.

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Athyrium filix-femina 'Dre's Dagger' (new)

A sport from the famous 'Victoriae' and resembling it in many ways, this has the fronds reduced to very narrow pinnae, held at a sharp angle to the rachis and usually criss-crossing each other in a three dimensional X; each frond and each pinnae ending with a crested tip. A much dwarfer form, to about 45cm. Easy in leafy shade to semi-shade.

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Athyrium filix-femina 'Lady in Red'

An excellent Lady fern, in fact a selection of the American var. angustum, with red stalked apple green fronds. Height 40cm. Semi-shade and moist acidic or neutral soil.

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Athyrium nipponicum var. pictum

The 'Japanese painted fern' has fronds variously marked with mauve-purple, silver-grey and grey-green creating a striking effect. Best in a semi-shaded site in leafy soil, not too dry, where it will spread slowly. Height 35cm.

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Athyrium otophorum

A colourful, very hardy Lady fern from Japan with fronds an unusual creamy-green with reddish stalks and veins. Great as a contrast in greener plantings. Ht 40cm. Semi-shade and humus rich soil.

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Aucuba japonica f. longifolia 'Salicifolia'

Not usually a species I get excited about, but in this free fruiting form the leaves are long, particularly narrow, plain green and elegant. They are also held on sea-green stems. Invaluable, of course, as a rounded medium sized shrub for the darkest, driest corner, or any other location you can think of, including full sun. Up to about 2m high.

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Aucuba omeiensis L614

Recently sold by a certain UK nursery for triple figures, these are more realistically priced. A large evergreen shrub of great rarity, prized for its thick, leathery, serrated foliage, up to 30cm long. Large red fruit, up to 2cm, are produced on long spikes. This hails from Emei Shan (Mt Omei) in Sichuan, China and copes well with dense shade. Very hardy.

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Azara microphylla 'Variegata'

A very elegant, hardy, evergreen, large shrub or small tree with small, but strongly and deliciously vanilla scented, yellow flowers covering the undersides of the branches in early spring. The tiny leaves are highly variegated cream and green reminding one of the foliage of Cotoneaster horizontalis 'variegatus'. Probably best with a little shelter.

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Ballota pseudodictamnus Compact form B&M 8119 (new)

A Chris Brickell collection from Crete, this forms a smaller plant than usual, making a mound of small woolly grey foliage with soft purple flowers in summer, followed by persistent grey green sepals. One of the best small sub-shrubs for grey foliage effect. A hardy plant for sun and well drained soil.

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Baptisia australis

Spikes of deep indigo pea flowers in early summer over blue-green foliage. Height 1m. Sun and rich soil.

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Begonia 'Mishmi Silver'

New from Arunachal Pradesh, Far NE India, is this as yet unidentified species. The leaves on the horizontal stems have an olive-green background but are heavily silvered between the veins and have dark red undersides. Reaches to 30cm high with pale pink flowers in summer. Hardiness unknown, so experiment if you like, or over-winter it inside.

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Begonia fusca (new)

Originally collected in Chiapas, S. Mexico, this is a very large leaved species of monumental proportions, with leaves up to 1m across on petioles of the same length! Without warmth and tropical humidity they are a little smaller. Large panicles of pale pink flowers, then pink seed capsules. Splendid in a pot stood in shade in summer; brought inside in winter.

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Begonia fusca (new)

Originally collected in Chiapas, S. Mexico, this is a very large leaved species of monumental proportions, with leaves up to 1m across on petioles of the same length! Without warmth and tropical humidity they are a little smaller. Large panicles of pale pink flowers, then pink seed capsules. Splendid in a pot stood in shade in summer; brought inside in winter.

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Begonia grandis subsp. sinensis 'Snowpop'

A new white flowered form of this hardy Begonia species named here at Pan Global'. The subsp. sinensis has smaller, prettier leaves than the commoner subsp. evansiana and in this form they have particularly attractive red veining underneath. Masses of small white flowers in late summer/early autumn above the leaves. For semi shade in humusy soil. 45cm.

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Begonia sutherlandii

This really rather hardy, winter dormant species from South Africa makes a small perennial with narrow, serrated, red veined foliage on red stems that can reach 80cm long if allowed to dangle freely over rocks or out of a hanging basket. Soft orange flowers are produced in profusion over a long period in late summer. For a cool position in semi-shade.

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Berberis hypokerina (new)

An exceptional species, discovered by Kingdon Ward in Upper Burma. This forms a small evergreen shrub to about 1m high usually, with striking holly-like leaves up to 15 x 6cm, green above and silvery-white beneath on a thicket of spineless purple stems. Masses of yellow flowers in spring, followed by dark-blue, white bloomed berries. Rarely obtainable.

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Berberis insignis var. insignis

One of the very finest species, making a medium sized evergreen shrub 1.5 to 1.8m tall, distinct in its mainly spineless stems. The leaves are some of the largest found in Berberis species, looking more Mahonia-like, dark glossy-green, lanceolate to narrowly oval with short spiny teeth. Dense clusters of large pale yellow flowers in spring. Very rarely offered.

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Berberis subacuminata NJM 09.165

Found at 2750m alt. on Fan Si Pan Mountain, N. Vietnam, near the Chinese border, this evergreen shrub made plants to about 2m tall, with leathery, prominently veined, elliptic-lanceolate leaves. Clusters of yellow flowers are seen in spring, followed by slightly bloomy black berries in autumn. Should have good hardiness from this altitude.

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Berberis triacanthophora 'Cally Rose' (new)

An excellent new introduction and unique in having clusters of pink flowers with cream inner petals, borne in summer. The rich green foliage is very fine and narrow and a joy in itself. Makes an evergreen, spiny, free flowering shrub to 1.8m, for sun or shade. Purchased in Japan, but originally collected in China. Incorrectly sold as B. panlanensis 'Cally Rose'.

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Berberis valdiviana

A highly sought after and desirable species from Chile making a large, evergreen shrub with polished, leathery, almost spineless leaves and long drooping racemes of saffron-yellow flowers in spring. Always in demand, hard to propagate, visually arresting in flower and rarely available. Easy and hardy.

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Berberis xanthoclada NJM 11.007

Found at the top of Leigong Shan, Guizhou, China, at 2150m, this very unusual evergreen barberry is endemic to Guizhou and made a dense shrub to 2m with glossy green elliptic foliage and black fruit. Yellow flowers borne in spring/summer.

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Bergenia 'Bach' (new)

A very fine white flowered cultivar with huge heads of flower that start pale pink and open white on red tinged stalks. Broad evergreen foliage is red flushed in winter. 40cm. Excellent groundcover for sun or semi-shade.

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Bergenia ciliata

Beautiful palest pink flowers in spring. Attractive bristly, deciduous leaves grow to a huge size, turning red in autumn. Height to 30cm. Sun or semi-shade and shelter.

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Bergenia ciliata 'Wilton'

Beautiful palest pink flowers in spring, slightly later than usual, helping to avoid frost. Attractive bristly, deciduous leaves grow to a huge size, are hairier than the norm and are slightly different in overall texture, turning red in autumn. Height to 30cm. Sun or semi-shade and shelter.

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Betula albosinensis 'Bowling Green'

A form of this wonderful Chinese birch originally selected for its bark qualities from an Ernest Wilson collection growing at Werrington, Cornwall. The bark is a warm honey colour and peels off to reveal a darker, more cinnamon-brown underside. Makes a fast growing medium sized tree. Easy and hardy. Best as a group planting.

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Betula albosinensis 'China Rose'

A new form of this wonderful species, selected, as so many good ones are, by Kenneth Ashburner. Making a fast growing medium sized tree, the bark on this is a really good saturated coppery-orange-red, with only a little white bloom when young. At its best close planted as a group of three, or cut back hard to form a multi-stem, but just one is pretty marvellous.

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Betula albosinensis 'Chinese Garden'

The second form selected for its bark qualities from an Ernest Wilson collection growing at Werrington, Cornwall. The rich pinkish bark is darker than 'Bowling Green', the other selection from that garden. Makes a fast growing medium sized tree. Easy and hardy. Best as a group planting.

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Betula albosinensis 'Pink Champagne'

Selected for its outstanding dusky pink bark, overlain with a persistent transparent layer of white betulin, the whole appearing pale pink. A new form of this marvellous Chinese birch, making a fast growing medium sized tree. Most effective as a close group of 3, but just one is beautiful. Hardy and easy. Originally from seed sent from Gansu, China.

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Betula albosinensis 'Red Panda'

Yet another outstanding clone of this most desirable of birches, this time collected originally in Hubei Province, China. As usual the bark is difficult to describe, but the main base colour is a caramel-orange-red, much like a Red Panda, but there is also gold in there, with heavy horizontal lenticel banding throughout. Superb as a group, just fine as one.

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Betula albosinensis var. septentrionalis Purdom 752

Originally collected in Gansu, China, by William Purdom in the early 1900's, this form has very attractive stems with bark of smoky mauves, buffs and satiny pinks. Makes a fast growing medium sized tree for most soils. Always most effective as a group, but one is still lovely.

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Betula cylindrostachya (new)

A rare Himalayan birch making a vigorous small tree with large, glossy foliage on stout shoots covered in soft yellow hairs, the bark shiny greyish-black. The catkins in spring are long and showy, up to 14cm. For a sheltered position in milder areas where it makes a fast growing reliable tree. Fine specimens can be seen in both Cornwall and on the Wirral.

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Betula dahurica 'Maurice Foster'

A new selection of this very distinct birch. The bark of the trunk and branches is particularly shaggy, composed of zillions of tightly shredded wisps of paper-thin sheets. In this form the outer bark is a dusky red-brown, peeling to reveal a silvery-grey inner layer. Very hardy and well suited to tough cold sites. Eventually makes a medium sized tree.

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Betula ermanii 'Grayswood Hill'

This birch is one of the finest for all year bark and trunk interest. The normally heavily branching stem or stems are rich cream with naturally shedding bark peeling off in little strips. The new foliage is orangey-red on expansion. One of the finest of all birch and best planted as a group, so as to enjoy as much bark as possible. Hardy and easy in most places.

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Betula ermanii 'Hakkoda Orange'

A colourful form of this Far Eastern species; the cream coloured papery bark naturally peeling off in strips to show warm pinkish-orange newer bark underneath. The branches tend to be less cream and more orange and the whole tree has striking horizontal lenticel banding on all bark surfaces. Will make a hardy medium sized tree for most soils. Collected N. Honshu.

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Betula ermanii 'Mount Zao Purple'

A truly unique birch with the most amazing coloured bark. The base layer is a mistily bloomed deep chocolate-purple, heavily overlain with copper-orange patches and a mass of very prominent creamy lenticel banding. Reliable orange autumn colour. Quite exceptional as a single specimen, this would look amazing as a group planting. From N. Honshu, Japan.

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Betula insignis

Introduced from China in only 1985 and still a rarity in cultivation. Described as 'most handsome' by Ashburner and Mc Allistair. Leaves large, up to 16cm long, and the big clusters of male catkins are 'the showiest of all birches', being again up to 16cm long. The dark bark has conspicuous horizontal lenticels. Excellent yellow-orange autumn colour.

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Betula luminifera (new)

Rarely sold or grown, this is a common tree in some parts of W. China. Very attractive very long male catkins in April and shining, dark, reddish-brown, cherry-like bark with conspicuous horizontal lenticels. Large deep green leaves persist until late autumn. Perfectly hardy even though very early to start into growth. A success in Holland and Belgium for eg.

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Betula nigra 'Wakehurst'

The N. America River birch has striking exfoliating bark and is very suitable for planting in moist places. This selection was made by Tony Schilling in 1990 for its superb bark, being pink and brown and as shaggy as ever. Makes a medium sized hardy tree with soft green foliage, glaucous beneath.

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Betula utilis 'Bhutan Sienna' (new)

A sister to 'Dark Ness' with lustrous dark-red peeling bark with a brown tint, showing prominent white lenticel flecking, offering a rather Prunus serrula-like look. Originally collected in Bhutan in 1984. Fabulous after or during rain when the trunk colour glows.

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Betula utilis 'Buddha'

Originally introduced from Nepal by Tony Schilling in 1976, this form has attractive underlying pale pinkish-brown bark, thinly washed with white, with contrasting coppery exfoliating bark strips. Heavily-veined, large, glossy leaves. A particularly nice, subtle bark colour on this one. A fast growing medium sized tree, always best planted as a group.

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Betula utilis 'China Bronze'

An original collection of the Himalayan birch made by Prof. Yu, under his number 10163. This Chinese form has metallic reddish orange bark, overlain with white and a semi-weeping habit. A fast growing medium sized tree eventually, especially effective if planted as a group.

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Betula utilis 'Chris Lane' (new)

A very richly coloured new form from wild Chinese seed. The bark is a complex mix of very fine features, with a base layer of dark purplish-red-brown, heavily banded with white lenticels. The whole is washed hither and thither with a misty cloud of whitish betulin and the papery peelings are semi-translucent burnt-orange. Praise be!

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Betula utilis 'Dark Ness'

A particularly richly coloured form of the Himalayan birch with lustrous mahogany-red peeling bark showing prominent white lenticel flecking, offering a rather Prunus serrula-like look. Originally collected in Bhutan in 1984 and planted at Ness Botanic Garden on The Wirral where it was selected in 2000. Fabulous after or during rain when the trunk colour glows.

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Betula utilis 'Forrest Blush'

A George Forrest collection (F19505) of the Himalayan birch with the bark a wonderful and variable mixture of soft coppery orange and palest white-pink and cream, all with prominent horizontal lenticel banding. Overall this gives a very pale, very beautiful appearance. A fast growing medium sized tree eventually, especially effective if planted as a group.

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Betula utilis 'Mt Luoji'

From the opposite end of the Himalaya to the white barked var. jacquemontii, this selection from Mt Luoji, Sichuan, China, could not be more different. Bark on this one has a prominent base layer of black-purple (with occasional white bloom), overlain with peeling sheets of paper-thin rich copper-orange. A medium sized tree, especially effective if planted as a group.

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Betula utilis 'Nepalese Orange'

Collected originally in Central Nepal by Roy Lancaster etc., this unusual form of the variable Himalayan birch possesses outstanding coppery-orange bark, overlain with paler patches and prominent horizontal lenticel banding, equal, in its own way, to any form of B. albosinensis. A hardy, medium sized tree, most spectacular when planted as a tight group.

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Grayswood Ghost'

An exceptional form of the Himalayan white-barked birch with guess what? Yup, bright white bark. Foliage is deep green and glossy. Typically a fast growing medium sized tree for most soils in good light. Easy and hardy. Most spectacular as a group of three or more, even if planted very closely.

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Knightshayes'

This selection from the famous Devon garden is unusual in that it has a semi-pendulous branch habit. The stems are as dazzling white as ever. Makes a medium sized fast growing tree.

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Ramdana River'

A relatively recent selection of the Himalayan white birch from Kenneth Ashburner's National collection, collected from Garwhal, Uttar Pradesh, India and considered a very fine form by him. Particularly white bark, even on young trees, and glossy green foliage. Especially good planted in groups.

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Silver Shadow' (new)

Often regarded as the best white bark, but in reality no better than any of the other excellent forms of jacquemontii and in fact very close or even identical to 'Inverleith'. Foliage is large deep green and glossy. Typically a fast growing medium sized tree for most soils in good light. Easy and hardy. Most spectacular as a group of three or more.

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Betula utilis var. jacquemontii 'Trinity College'

From the grounds of Trinity College Botanical Garden, Dublin, this was originally received as seed sent by Hooker from Kew around 1883. A fine selection with a narrow habit and gleaming white bark from an early age. The leaves last well into autumn, dropping late.

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Betula utilis var. yunnanensis 'Park Wood'

A selection of this variable Himalayan species with most unusual dark chocolate coloured bark, with contrasting thin white horizontal lenticel banding. Sounds bizarre for a birch, but is actually rather sumptuous, especially as the trunk gets fatter. The bark peels off naturally leaving a clean trunk. Makes a medium sized tree with a light canopy, in typical birch fashion.

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Bidens aurea 'Hannay's Lemon Drop'

Delicate daisies with lemon yellow, strikingly white tipped petals in late summer. Height 150 cm. Sun, sheltered site.

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Blechnum brasiliense 'Volcano' (new)

A not too hardy but extremely handsome species from Brasil and Peru forming evergreen fronds to 75cm long, composed of very many narrow linear pinnae. The piece de resistance however is the colour of the new fronds, which emerge red. For pot culture, brought under cover in winter, where it should survive just a few degrees of frost.

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Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii

A Chilean myrtle relatively new to cultivation, forming a large shrub with glossy evergreen leaves, often folded somewhat, and red-brown flaking bark. Masses of white flowers in summer followed by black berries. Hardy to about -10c apparently, though a sheltered position would be sensible.

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Bomarea acutifolia F&M 104 (new)

This was found at 2600m on Pico de Orizaba, Mexico. A climbing Alstroemeria relative with terminal clusters of narrow, tubular, bright orange flowers with paler, dark spotted interiors on herbaceous twining stems, reaching 2m + high with suitable support. Very showy scarlet seeds. Best in humus rich soil in sun/semi-shade, mulched over for winter.

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Borinda papyrifera Stapleton 1046

One of the finest of modern introductions from the slopes of Zi Ben Shan, Yunnan, SW China at 3300m asl. The icy-blue-white new culm colour lasts extremely well; though equally good are the huge papery sheaths. Particularly strong upright growth to 5m, with the older culms arching under the weight of foliage. Very tightly clump forming with big thick culms.

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Brimeura amethystina

Like an exquisite, teeny weeny bluebell, this is a hardy bulb for a sunny well drained position. Spikes of little powder-blue narrow waisted, but open mouthed bells (bluebell shaped!) on stems to 15cm in May or June. From southern Europe.

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Briza media 'Golden Bee'

A slightly more compact form of the native perennial Quaking grass with particularly bright, soft yellow tinged flower heads. The distinctive and highly attractive dangling flowers are seen in summer and fade beige as they go over. The little flowers bob around in the breeze on multiply-branched wiry stalks. Height to 50cm from a tight clump. Sun or part shade.

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Briza media 'Limouzi'

A form of our native perennial Quaking Grass with blue-green leaves and distinctive and highly attractive dangling flowers tinted red-purple in summer, fading beige. The little flowers bob around in the breeze on multiply-branched wiry stalks. Height to 60cm from a tight clump. Sun or part shade.

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Broussonetia papyrifera 'Laciniata'

An oddball form of the Paper Mulberry, making only a shrub, with extremely dissected, and sometimes exceptionally finely lobed foliage. Deciduous, hardy. This rarity has been in cultivation since about 1830.

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Buddleja crispa

A mid summer flowering species reaching about 2m, usually grown against a wall. Soft, white-woolly stems and leaves: the latter with a serrated edge. Fragrant lilac-pink flowers freely borne in late June/July. Sun and well drained soil.

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Buddleja lindleyana

A medium sized, hardy, deciduous shrub, much smaller and more well behaved than B. davidii. Long, slender, curved racemes of narrow tubed, extended purple-violet flowers in Jul/Aug, exquisite on close inspection - pale and glistening on the outside and darker within. Leaves are small and mid-green, again nothing like B. davidii.

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Buddleja megalocephala BSWJ 9106

A new introduction from very high altitude in Guatemala where it grew up to 5m tall at 3350m alt. Long narrow foliage has particularly white hairy undersides and the terminal heads of yellow turning deep burnt orange flowers are produced in ball shaped clusters, much in the same way as B. globosa. This will no doubt be best tried in a sheltered corner.

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Buddleja myriantha

An unusual species from W China and Burma, this makes a medium sized shrub, the lance shaped leaves with a soft yellow-beige hair beneath. Terminal panicles of purplish flowers are produced in late summer, the individual flowers downy on the outside. Hardy in sun and well drained soil.

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Buddleja salviifolia

A splendid evergreen species from South Africa proven hardy here over many years. As the name suggests the foliage on this one is rather sage-like, covered as it is in close, fine hairs. New growth is a most lovely cream-beige. A large shrub showing terminal heads of lilac-blue, sweetly scented flowers in spring. Wonderful.

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Buddleja salviifolia white flowered

The name on this one is tentative at present, but the plant is a beauty. The leaves differ from the more usually grown blue flowered form by being greener, with additional white hairs, and having a more bullate (blistered/puckered) surface. Big heads of highly scented creamy white flowers in spring. Hardiness seems good, but a warm wall would be sensible.

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Buddleja sterniana (new)

Now part of the highly variable B. crispa, I retain the name here as it is a distinct entity with ornamental features. A rounded bushy deciduous shrub up to 3m tall with young shoots, leaf undersides and flower stalks covered with dense white woolly hair. The leaf upper surface is at first covered in golden-brown wool. Fragrant pale lavender flowers in spring.

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Buddleja wardii KR 4881

Never offered before, this is a relatively recent collection by Keith Rushforth from 3000m alt' in Tibet. Closely related to and superficially similar to B. alternifolia, this forms a twiggy round headed tree to 5m if left unpruned. Pale grey, small, slim, toothed foliage on wiry branches with axillary clusters of white, fragrant flowers with soft orange tubes in April. Hardy.

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Calamagrostis epigejos 'Hortorum'

A tough grass for sun or shade, moist or dry soils, forming broad clumps of upright stems to 1.5m high, topped by feathery flower heads that turn to straw colour over the green foliage. This species is one of the parents of the well known hybrid C. x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster.

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Calanthe Kozu grex

A hardy orchid from Japan for light shade and humusy soil. Attractive pleated foliage emerges in spring, followed by 25cm high heads of light-caramel flowers with pale-pink lower lips in summer. A hybrid between the hardy C. discolor and the fragrant C. izu-insularis.

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Callicarpa psilocalyx NJM 13.057 (new)

A recent collection from Manipur, NE India, where this softly hairy large shrub to about 3m high was showing it's pearly, intense true-purple, relatively small fruit in dense clusters from every leaf axil along the arching stems. Leaves are held in opposite pairs and are comparatively large. This will probably require a fairly warm position away from winter extremes.

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Calycanthus 'Venus' (new)

From creamy-yellow buds open large, Magnolia-like, fruity-scented, multi-tepalled flowers up to 11.5cm across, white with yellow and purple centres, opening from spring to mid-summer. A hybrid Allspice with complex parentage, raised in the USA. Forming a large deciduous shrub, 3x3m eventually, for any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Calycanthus floridus 'Michael Lindsey' (new)

Selected for it's truly deliciously fruity fragrance, this Carolina Allspice forms a dense, bushy, medium sized deciduous shrub with a multitude of small deep-maroon flowers borne over a long period in summer over glossy, rich-green, aromatic leaves. For any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade, apparently even tolerant of rather wet soils.

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Camellia 'Night Rider'

New from New Zealand, this is a very slow growing, compact hybrid with an upright growth form. The dark green foliage emerges shiny deep-purple tinted and the mid to late spring flowers are semi-double and deep blood-red. Very suited to either garden or pot culture.

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Camptotheca acuminata

Xi Shu or 'Happy Tree'. Whilst tender when very young this vigorous tree from SW China develops great hardiness with age. Foliage emerges red tinted, turning green with a red stalk and midrib. Flowers are balls of white followed by attractive hemispherical green to yellow fruit clusters, maturing yellow in autumn. Related to Davidia, and in use an as anti-carcinogen.

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Cardamine pratensis 'Edith'

Double white flowered form of the Lady's Smock. 15cm. Moist-ish soil in sun or part shade.

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Cardamine waldsteinii

From the Balkans, Waldstein's toothwort makes a tough little April flowering perennial to about 30cm high, with comparatively large white open faced flowers with purple stamen over the bright green trifoliate foliage. Easy in sun or semi-shade if not too dry.

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Cardiandra alternifolia subsp. moellendorffii

An herbaceous hydrangea relative from China, forming a clumping perennial with delicate brick-pink lacecap flowers in late summer and autumn. For a humus rich soil in a wind sheltered position. Approx 50cm high.

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Cardiocrinum giganteum NJM 12.060 (new)

A new collection from an obscure locality, on the Burmese border of Manipur, NE India at c2000m asl. These will produce, when ready, a giant scape of deliciously scented, densely packed white to greenish-white lily flowers, stained purple in the throat, on stems 2 to 3m high. Cool, rich, humusy soil in part shade.

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Cardiocrinum giganteum var. yunnanense

The marvellous Giant lily producing, when ready, a giant scape of deliciously scented, creamy-white lily flowers, stained purple in the throat, and in this Chinese variety, contrasting flower stems stained almost black to about 2m high, and the young heart shaped leaves also tinged bronze. Cool, rich, humusy soil in part shade.

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Cardiocrinum giganteum var. yunnanense NJM 11.023 (new)

A new collection from Guizhou, SW China, very near Fanjingshan, where an exceptional form was once found. These should hopefully be as good, producing, when ready, a giant scape of deliciously scented, densely packed creamy-white lily flowers, stained purple in the throat, and contrasting flower stems stained almost black to about 2m high. Cool, rich, humusy soil in part shade.

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Carex grayi

This is a real departure from the 'norm'. A sedge from Eastern North America with splendidly odd, mace-like, spiky seed heads in summer, as bright green as the rest of the plant. These are readily used in flower arrangements either fresh or dry. Makes a clump of semi-evergreen foliage to about 70cm. Suitable for moist or wet soils in sun or semi-shade.

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Carex plantaginea

The Broad-leaved sedge from Eastern N. America is native to moist spots in deciduous woods and makes bold clumps with leaves to 3cm across. Foliage emerges bright green and is clearly linear-veined in a corrugated fashion. An evergreen for at least semi-shade and soil that doesn't become dry. An excellent contrast to ferns.

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Carmichaelia stevensonii

Previously known as Chordospartium stevensonii, this is the pink flowered Weeping broom from New Zealand. Looking entirely dead when very young (straw brown shoots), this matures to be an elegant beauty, making a large shrub with weeping whipcord like branches. Racemes of lilac-pink pea flowers in summer. Hardy in sun and well drained soil.

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Carpenteria californica 'Bodnant'

Tree Anemone. A selected form of this lovely, July flowering, medium sized, evergreen shrub from said famous garden. Masses of larger, round, white flowers with golden centres and good purpley stems. Best in full sun and not necessarily needing a wall as once thought.

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Carpinus fangiana

Monkeytail Hornbeam. An exciting relatively new intro' from China, with comparatively huge leaves up to 20cm long, bronze when young, with as many as 30 prominent veins. In autumn hung with remarkable and striking pendent fruiting catkins up to 30cm long. Should make a medium sized tree in time. Quite an exceptional new species to cultivation.

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Carpinus fargesiana (new)

Particularly rare in cultivation with merely a handful of young trees in specialist collections, this Chinese and Vietnamese hornbeam is particularly elegant, with pointed mid green leaves on a small to medium sized tree with weeping branchlets. Hardy. This collection from Shanghai Botanic Garden seed.

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Carpinus fargesiana KR 8780 (new)

Particularly rare in cultivation with merely a handful of young trees in specialist collections, this Chinese and Vietnamese hornbeam is particularly elegant, with pointed mid green leaves on a small to medium sized tree with weeping branchlets. Hardy, even through the cold of 2010 etc.. This collection from Ha Giang Province, N. Vietnam.

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Carpinus omeiensis KR 280

Collected originally on Mount Omei, Sichuan, by Keith Rushforth, this remains a very rare species of hornbeam in cultivation, though hardy and attractive with very slender, semi-pendant branchlets. In this collection the small elegant leaves are rich coppery red when young. A small tree to 7m maximum, though it has yet to reach that size in cultivation.

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Carpinus polyneura

Described in Grimshaw and Bayton's 'New Trees' as "another exceptional new tree to cultivation". A very elegant small to medium sized Chinese tree with long slender, semi-pendulous shoots clad with long, pointed, strongly veined leaves, which emerge red and persist very late in the year. Hardy.

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Carpinus pubescens

An Asian Hornbeam with a naturally weeping habit, new to cultivation, with smallish, dainty foliage, attractively coppery-red on emergence. Grows to 15m in its natural habitat. From SW China and N Vietnam growing at up to 2000m on limestone. This collection from Yunnan, China.

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Carpinus shensiensis

Pretty new on the scene, this rare hornbeam from S. Gansu and S. Shanxi, China will make a small to medium sized tree here, with neat foliage emerging deep red flushed. Fruiting clusters to 10cm long. Any reasonable soil. Hardy.

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Carpinus tschonoskii BBJMT 297

A Far Eastern hornbeam making a small to medium sized hardy tree in cultivation. Like most hornbeams this is an elegant, understated tree with simple features; the leaves are finely serrated and with conspicuous venation. The pale grey bark is marked all over with vertical darker 'stretch marks'. Very hardy and tolerant.

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Carrierea calycina PW 84

This great rarity from Sichuan, China is virtually never available commercially, though is perfectly growable and flowers well in my garden here. A vigorous hardy tree, eventually of medium size with handsome dark green foliage on red petioles and attractive, creamy-white, fruit scented lantern-like flowers in early summer. Related to Idesia and Poliothyrsis.

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Carya illinoinensis

The mighty Pecan of the USA makes only a small to medium tree here and is thought not to be a long term success, though I have watched a tree grow for over twenty years in Stroud, Gloucestershire and it's still in rude health. Perhaps our climate has changed? Handsome, large pinnate leaves with up to 17 leaflets. For a sunny site.

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Carya ovata

The Shagbark hickory from E North America is a very important nut producer over there, though here we mainly grow it for its large handsome pinnate foliage, turning a very rich butter-yellow in autumn, its medium to large size and its handsome form. The bark is distinctive, becoming pale grey, fissured, then curving away from the trunk in stiff shaggy strips.

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Castanea seguinii (new)

A naturally relatively small growing Sweet Chestnut from China with long coarsely serrated handsome foliage. Rarely seen in cultivation, though reaching 18m tall at Borde Hill in Sussex after 80 years. Used for chestnut production in China. Very hardy.

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Catalpa fargesii f. duclouxii

This Chinese 'Bean tree' is quite different to the norm due to its spectacular lilac-pink foxglove-like flowers, stained yellow with red-brown spots, borne in large heads in July. Rarely offered, it makes a beautiful, summer flowering, small to medium tree with elegant long-pointed leaves. Any well drained soil in sun. Importantly, these are grafted, for early flowering.

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Cautleya gracilis from Manipur (new)

This small ginger relative, with red and yellow flower spikes in late summer, was found in Manipur on Shirui Peak at 2500m alt. A more delicate looking species than C. spicata, reaching about 60cm. Rich soil, sun/semi-shade

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Cautleya gracilis from Manipur (new)

This small ginger relative, with red and yellow flower spikes in late summer, was found in Manipur on Shirui Peak at 2500m alt. A more delicate looking species than C. spicata, reaching about 60cm. Rich soil, sun/semi-shade

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Cautleya gracilis var. gracilis 'Crug Gold'

A form found on the border of Burma and Thailand near the summit of Doi Phohon-Pok. Up to ten golden-yellow long lipped flowers per inflorescence emerge from red bracts atop leafy stems to 80cm tall in late summer. This hardy ginger relative enjoys a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Cautleya gracilis var. gracilis 'Crug Gold'

A form found on the border of Burma and Thailand near the summit of Doi Phohon-Pok. Up to ten golden-yellow long lipped flowers per inflorescence emerge from red bracts atop leafy stems to 80cm tall in late summer. This hardy ginger relative enjoys a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Cautleya gracilis var. robusta 'Tenzing's Gold' (new)

A fine form of this hardy ginger relative with more flowers per stem, usually between 15 and 20. Rich yellow flowers from red tinted bracts in late summer on stems to 50cm. The leaves have most attractive deep-red undersides. Enjoys a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry. Mulch over in winter if you live on Ben Nevis, but otherwise hardy if not waterlogged in winter.

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Cautleya gracilis var. robusta 'Tenzing's Gold' (new)

A fine form of this hardy ginger relative with more flowers per stem, usually between 15 and 20. Rich yellow flowers from red tinted bracts in late summer on stems to 50cm. The leaves have most attractive deep-red undersides. Enjoys a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry. Mulch over in winter if you live on Ben Nevis, but otherwise hardy if not waterlogged in winter.

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Cautleya spicata 'Arun Flame'

A collection of this hardy ginger relative from E. Nepal which has the darkest red stems to about 1m tall. Orange flushed rich yellow flowers emerging from deep-red bracts are produced atop the stems July to Sept and the leaf undersides are tinged purple-red. Enjoying a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Cautleya spicata 'Arun Flame'

A collection of this hardy ginger relative from E. Nepal which has the darkest red stems to about 1m tall. Orange flushed rich yellow flowers emerging from deep-red bracts are produced atop the stems July to Sept and the leaf undersides are tinged purple-red. Enjoying a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Cautleya spicata 'Crug Canary' (new)

A selection of this very exotic looking, but hardy ginger relative with striking flower spikes in August, borne atop clumps of luscious foliage to about 70cm. Richest orangey-yellow Roscoea like flowers emerge from deep blood-red bracts. Rich soil in semi-shade.

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Cautleya spicata 'Crug Canary' (new)

A selection of this very exotic looking, but hardy ginger relative with striking flower spikes in August, borne atop clumps of luscious foliage to about 70cm. Richest orangey-yellow Roscoea like flowers emerge from deep blood-red bracts. Rich soil in semi-shade.

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Cautleya spicata 'Robusta'

A very exotic looking, but hardy ginger relative with striking flower spikes in August, borne atop clumps of luscious foliage to about 70cm. Richest orangey-yellow Roscoea like flowers emerge from deep blood-red bracts. Rich soil in semi-shade.

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Cautleya spicata 'Robusta'

A very exotic looking but hardy ginger relative with yellow and red flower spikes in August, borne atop clumps of luscious foliage to about 70cm. Enjoying a semi-shade position in good free draining soil that doesn't get too dry.

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Cautleya spicata lutea

Not scientifically recognised as a variety as such, but horticulturally rather different to 'Robusta' having none of the red pigment in the bracts or pseudostems. Masses of luscious foliage on stems to about 70cm, topped by yellow Roscoea-like flowers emerging from green bracts in August. Quite different. Forms clumps in rich soil in semi-shade.

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Cautleya spicata lutea (new)

Not scientifically recognised as a variety as such, but horticulturally rather different to 'Robusta' having none of the red pigment in the bracts or pseudostems. Masses of luscious foliage on stems to about 70cm, topped by yellow Roscoea-like flowers emerging from green bracts in August. Quite different. Forms clumps in rich soil in semi-shade.

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Cedrus deodara 'Karl Fuchs'

A German selection of the Himalayan Deodar originating from Paktia, Afghanistan and very different from the norm, having foliage emerging a light blue-green, fading to green on older growth. It is also an extremely hardy selection, shrugging of cold down to about -30c. As ever, this is a vigorous large evergreen tree with level branches ending in drooping tips.

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Cedrus deodara 'Robusta' (new)

An unusual form of the Himalayan Cedar with exceptionally long stout needles, up to 8cm long, forming a wide spreading medium sized tree with drooping branches. Hardy and easy.

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Cenolophium denudatum

Deep green, very finely divided leaves form beautiful foliar texture in spring, then broad flat umbels of white flowers rise above in summer. Sun or shade, even very dry shade. A very tough plant which will happily naturalise in wild, and not so wild, parts of the garden.

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Centaurea jacea (new)

A native of Europe, including the British Isles, often found in dry meadows and open woodland. Purple-pink knapweed flowers open flat from cones of bronze scales in the height of summer. Makes good clumps of lance shaped foliage, flowering at approx 70cm tall. Beloved of our native insects, this is great for a wild look.

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Cercis canadensis 'Forest Pansy'

A form of the North American Redbud or 'Judas Tree' grown principally for its superb foliage which is rounded, heart-shaped and a rich, deep reddish-purple. One of the best small trees of this colour and quite stunning when backlit in summer. Flowers pink but not borne freely in this country. For sun or semi-shade and ordinary reasonably well drained soil.

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Cercis canadensis var. texensis 'Oklahoma'

A selected form of this geographical variety from the Arbuckle mountains of Oklahoma, picked out for its exceptionally rich flower colour, being a vivid purple-pink. The var. texensis differs from typical C. canadensis by being only a shrubby little tree and having highly attractive and distinctive glossy, blunt tipped, wavy edged leaves. For full sun. Hardy.

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Chaenomeles cathayensis

Grown both for its salmon-pink and white blossom in spring and for the very large, yellow, pear-shaped fragrant fruit, this large shrub from W. China will reach up to 3m x 3m if left unpruned. The fruit are the largest in the genus and make very good eating when cooked, often used in jellies and pies and very good combined with apples. Tough and easy.

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Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Imbricata Pendula' (new)

Anyone with an aversion to the average Lawson Cypress can think again; this is a most unusual and highly ornamental form raised in NZ as long ago as 1930, but rarely seen here as yet. This forms only a small tree with a conical habit, but with highly pendulous whip-like, pendulous branches. Good enough for an RHS Award of Garden Merit.

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Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium var. album

The pure white form of Willow herb, making bold clumps with flowers in summer. Height 1.5m. Sun or part shade. Very elegant.

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Chimonanthus praecox var. luteus

In this 'winter-sweet' the waxy flowers that appear, usually in February, are exceptionally bright yellow in comparison to other forms, and intensely sweetly fragrant as ever. Of typical size, it makes a healthy, medium sized semi-evergreen shrub, best planted in a sunny position to promote good flowering.

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Chimonobambusa tumidissinoda

A very distinct bamboo with particularly swollen nodes on the culms, used to make the famous Chinese walking sticks. Extremely elegant and distinct long narrow foliage on graceful arching culms to 2-3m. Running habit best controlled with rhizome barrier. Gorgeous, one of my favourites, and probably the most elegant of all bamboos. Best in semi-shade.

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Chionochloa conspicua

The Plumed Tussock Grass from New Zealand makes a robust, ornamental specimen to 1.5m high. The flat leaves are green with a central orange stripe. Graceful, semi-pendent, loose inflorescences are borne in summer. Sun, not too bone dry.

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Chionochloa flavicans (new)

Often confused with the slightly inferior C. flavescens, this evergreen species from New Zealand is slightly smaller. Forming a graceful tussock of vivid green foliage with arching flower stalks ending in nodding inflorescences above the foliage, the remains of which last well through winter. Suited to a wide range of soil types and drought tolerant. Height 90cm.

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Chionochloa rubra

The 'Red tussock grass' of New Zealand. Bold clumps of thin foliage, mainly soft red-brown with a hint of purple, turning more orangey in winter. A striking grass for full sun and well drained soil.

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Chloranthus oldhamii BSWJ 2019

From the mountains of Taiwan, a hardy perennial with upright stems to 50cm bearing whorls of four to six handsome leaves and terminal spikes of scented white flowers that droop down from an upright stem and essentially last for months. For a humus-rich soil in semi-shade.

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Chlorophytum nepalense (new)

A collection from the mountains of Nagaland, NE India, this deciduous 'Spider Plant' relative has proved itself completely hardy at Edinburgh Botanic Garden. Retreating underground in winter, this makes a tight clump of linear bright green basal foliage and branched stems to about 60cm tall bearing a continuation of white star like flowers in summer

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Chrysopogon gryllus

Large open heads of gold/purple flowers in summer make a cloud of subtle beauty across the grasslands of E. Europe. A tussock forming grass with hairy leaves in two ranks. Height 1.3m. Sun, hardy.

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Chrysosplenium macrophyllum

A plant for moist shade, with large grey-green bristly leaves, which bronze a little in winter, and large red-pink tinted white flowers in spring, lasting for weeks as they set seed. Spreads by runners which emerge heavily washed in deep red, so forming a colony. Great ground-cover and extremely easily removed if spreading too far.

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Chusquea culeou

These are recently seed raised from the flowering of a plant originally collected in Chile. A sought after bamboo, forming a very tight clump with thick upright, yellow-green culms and distinct, dense, leafy branching at each node. A real specimen bamboo, also great associated with big leaves. 3-4m, sometimes smaller. Hardy.

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Chusquea gigantea

The holy grail to many lovers of bamboo. This very large growing Andean species creates an awe inspiringly impressive clump of widely spaced thick culms extremely quickly. Culms are green, turning yellow between the nodes which are prominently branched. New culms have attractive, persistent cream sheaths, and the leaves are long and narrow. Height 6m.

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Cimicifuga (see Actaea)

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Cirsium heterophyllum PAB 067

Mid-purple knapweed like flowers, hugely attractive to bees, in summer on vertical stems to 1m. Undivided smooth green leaves. Sun or part shade. These are derived from a Norwegian colony.

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Cistus 'Snow Fire'

A low, wide spreading mound of deep green foliage up to 60cm tall sets off the full, rounded, yellow centred white flowers with very conspicuous deep red blotches at the base of each petal. A highly rated modern cultivar of complex parentage and one of the hardiest forms. For well drained soil in full sun. Raised by Eric Sammons, a leading light in Cistus breeding.

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Cistus populifolius var. major

One of the hardiest species, and very handsome with its fairly large, rich green, textured foliage with undulating edges and masses of large, silky, yellow centred white flowers emerging from rich-red tinged buds in June/July, the latter being a superb feature. Full sun and well drained soil. Very drought tolerant. Makes a bushy plant to about 1m high and round.

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Cistus salviifolius 'Prostratus'

A dwarf, grey leaved shrub, prostrate and spreading in this form, with yellow centred white flowers very freely produced in June/July. Very drought tolerant and best in full sun in poor, well drained soil.

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Cistus x aguilarii 'Maculatus'

An old classic sun rose of upright form, reaching about 1.5m or sometimes more. Big white flowers, with a ring of perfectly formed deep wine-red markings at the base of each petal, are seen in early summer. The evergreen foliage is handsome in itself, narrow with an undulating edge. A great plant for sunny well drained positions in unamended soil.

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Cistus x argenteus 'Silver Ghost'

A white or palest-pink sport from the famous 'Silver Pink'. Makes a low mound of grey green foliage and bears its profusely borne flowers in early summer on long stalks, holding them above the foliage well. Full sun and well drained soil.

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Cistus x dansereaui 'Decumbens'

A small spreading evergreen shrub for a sunny well drained site with dark green lance shaped, wavy edged leaves that are aromatic and sticky to the touch. Large white flowers are beautifully marked with a crimson basal blotch at the base of each petal and are borne en-masse over a long period in early summer. At least a metre across and half as high.

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Citrus ichangensis (C. cavaleriei)

One of the hardiest of all Citrus, this distinctive foliage plant can survive on a warm wall in many parts of the UK and even free standing in mild areas. A small to medium sized shrub with tapered ovate-elliptic leaves with the extended winged petiole as broad as the leaf blade (like Kaffir lime leaves). White flowers are followed by lemon shaped fruit if grown on a warm wall.

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Cladrastis kentukea (new)

The Yellowwood from the SE USA forms a very attractive tree here, with unusual alternately pinnate, bold foliage, turning to an excellent clear yellow in autumn. The long drooping panicles of white pea flowers in June remind one of Wisteria. Easy in most places, enjoying sun.

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Cladrastis sinensis

A very rarely offered or seen Chinese tree of small to medium size for a sunny position. Attractive pinnate leaves open late, and the tree is smothered in large panicles of pink-tinged white pea flowers in July, but not usually on very young specimens. Bark is smooth and grey, and the autumn colour is an exceptional, glowing, clear golden yellow.

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Clematis aff. tongluensis (new)

From 2900m in Kachin State, Far NW Burma. A rarely seen Himalayan species of restricted distribution, this relatively small growing species has C. montana-like foliage. Distinctly long stalked white flowers with elegant lanceolate petals and contrasting purple tipped stamen are seen from June to October. Demanding of a cool root run; never too dry.

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Clematis dasyandra PAB

We found this growing near the Loushan Pass, Guizhou, SW China. Pretty little variably pink-purple bells with the sepals recurving at the mouth open in late summer on a vigorous deciduous climber. These are the first commercially available in the UK.

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Clematis fasciculiflora L657

Rare, beautiful and distinct, this evergreen climber from China usually has foliage attractively marked with a silvery blotch and bears it's fragrant, bell shaped, white flowers in late winter/early spring. New shoots appear red-purple with bronze-red foliage and eventually reach about 6m with suitable support. I have used it to cover a sunny 2m wall.

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Clematis orientalis from Kyrgyzstan (new)

Rather different to what you know in cultivation as this species, these have very blue-grey, very narrowly dissected foliage from this area and light yellow flowers. Extremely hardy and as easy as ever in sun or part shade.

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Clematis smilacifolia NJM 10.094

A striking looking evergreen Clematis with a range from Nepal to New Guinea, this was found in the Sapa area of N. Vietnam on karstic limestone. Large deltoid-ovate leaves are variably marked with silver-grey above and variably deep claret-purple below. Flowers should be purple and white! Far hardier and more growable than the older clone(s) in cultivation.

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Clematis urophylla 'Winter Beauty'

A very fine, relatively new species to cultivation with evergreen foliage and dangling, bell shaped, pure-white, thick textured flowers produced in late winter on a strong growing vigorous climber. This requires a sheltered wall and is best not taken to the coldest parts of the North. This goes around under the name C. urophylla 'Winter Beauty'.

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Clematis urophylla - collected Kanding, Sichuan

A very fine, relatively new species to cultivation with evergreen foliage and dangling, bell shaped, pure-white, thick textured flowers produced in late winter on a strong growing vigorous climber. This represents a John Marston collection from China and has more elegant, slightly narrower foliage than 'Winter Beauty' that emerges a good rich red. For a sheltered wall.

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Clerodendrum trichotomum

An invaluable late flowering large shrub to small tree. New foliage emerging burgundy flushed. Very fragrant white flowers held in maroon calyces borne in Aug/Sept, followed by bright blue berries, still subtended by the persistent calyxes. A tolerant and hardy species for acid or alkaline soils.

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Clethra barbinervis 'Great Star' (new)

A selected form of this desirable hardy medium to large shrub from Japan and S Korea, flowering at a younger age, with attractive exfoliating grey and pink-brown bark recalling a crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia. Long racemes of deliciously scented white flowers are seen in July/August, followed by red and yellow autumn colour. Requires lime free soil.

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Clethra barbinervis 'White Star'

A new form of a desirable hardy medium to large shrub from Japan and S Korea, flowering at a younger age, with attractive exfoliating grey and pink-brown bark recalling a crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia. Long racemes of deliciously scented white flowers are seen in July/August, followed by red and yellow autumn colour. Requires lime free soil.

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Clethra delavayi (new)

A variable species, now including many closely related entities, but always very handsome. A large shrub with long, broad, horizontally held, many flowered racemes of highly scented pure white flowers in late summer. Seen at its best with at least some shelter. Usually perfectly hardy in most parts of the UK. For lime free soil

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Clethra kaipoensis NJM 11.058

A new introduction from the slopes of Fanjing Shan, Guizhou, China, where we found it at 2000m as a deciduous upright large shrub or small tree to 4m with rough, fissured bark. The terminal, branched, narrow conical inflorescences are seen in late summer and composed of multiple white flowers giving a fine fragrance. For lime free soil.

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Clethra monostachya

One of the finest of all late summer flowering shrubs, this makes a large deciduous bush for lime-free soils. Best suited away from the very coldest areas and requiring a sheltered site inland, this bears long racemes of fragrant white flowers in late summer.

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Clethra pringlei

Very rare in cultivation, this Eastern and North Eastern Mexican species is highly regarded by the few that grow it in North America. A large shrub for lime free soil, or given time a small tree, this has foliage that emerges reddy-bronze and turns to deep green later with long racemes of strongly cinnamon scented white flowers in summer. Certainly reasonably hardy.

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Cleyera japonica var. japonica

A rare member of the Tea family from Japan, where it is the sacred tree of Shintoism. Forms a rigidly wide spreading, distinctly layered evergreen shrub with red-rimmed, green, leathery foliage, often red tinted in winter. Masses of fairly inconspicuous but wonderfully scented, small, translucent cream flowers in summer. Not suited to shallow chalk soils. Height 3m.

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Cleyera japonica var. wallichiana (new)

Rarely seen, the Western form of this hardy evergreen, densely leafy shrub forms a more upright plant, to about 3m or more. Leatherier, thicker textured, glossy, rich-green foliage often red tinted over winter. Masses of fairly inconspicuous but wonderfully scented, small, translucent cream flowers in summer. Not for shallow chalk soils.

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Colquhounia coccinea Schl 2458

This clone is thought to be the best in cultivation by Tony Schilling who introduced it. A tall deciduous shrub looking a little like a Buddleja in leaf, and a giant Salvia in flower, with lovely, scarlet, tubular flowers in late summer/autumn, at the ends of the branches. This is a good hardy form, for full sun and well drained soil. From the Milke Danda, Nepal, 2740m alt.

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Comptonia peregrina

This aromatic little shrub from E North America has the common name 'sweet fern', which gives a hint to the unusual fragrant foliage. Stems and foliage are covered in fine hairs and small brown, glistening catkins are seen in spring. Makes a low suckering little colony, best in sun in never too dry lime free soil.

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Convallaria majalis 'Albostriata'

The old striped leaf clone of lily of the valley, with green leaves striped along their length with very narrow cream pinstripes. Typical deliciously scented white flowers in spring. Forms patches over time on most soils, even very dry ones. Sun or semi-shade.

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Convallaria majalis 'Fortin's giant' (new)

Larger in all its parts than normal lily of the valley, the extra large little white bells emitting the same fabulous fragrance in late spring. For sun or semi shade, in any well drained soil.

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Convallaria majalis 'Vic Pawlowski's Gold'

A particularly stable variegated clone of Lily of the valley; the leaves vividly striped creamy-yellow from top to bottom and an improvement on 'Albostriata'. Typical deliciously scented white flowers in spring. Forms patches over time on most soils, even very dry ones. Sun or semi-shade.

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Cornus 'Eddie's White Wonder'

A hybrid between the American species C. florida and C. nuttallii, making a large shrub or small, compact tree, with layers of branches smothered in large white flower heads in spring. Leaves give brilliant autumn colour. Quite a sight in flower, closely resembling a good C. nuttallii.

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Cornus 'Norman Hadden'

A beautiful, graceful, spreading small tree with nearly evergreen foliage. Small flowers surrounded by large, conspicuous, creamy-white bracts in June, turning pink in July. Large crops of pendulous, strawberry like fruit in autumn. A bit lovely.

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Cornus 'Ormonde'

A hybrid between C. florida and C. nuttallii resembling C. 'Eddies White Wonder' (same parentage), but of spreading habit. An old specimen at Kew was a most beautiful sight in full flower and made a very full, rounded small tree with branches to the ground. The inconspicuous flowers are surrounded by four large white bracts and smother the branches in May.

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Cornus 'Stellar Pink'

Another product of the Cornus breeding program of Elwin Orton of Rutgers University, New Jersey, this hybrid of C. kousa and C. florida visually leans toward the former parent. Bearing a massed display of white to soft pink bracted flowers in mid summer on a rounded small tree to about 6m tall with spreading branches. For sun or part shade.

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Cornus 'Venus'

A hybrid of C. kousa and C. nuttallii bearing one of the most magnificent floral displays of any Cornus. The broad rounded clear white bracts that surround the flowers reach typically to 12 to 15cm across and occasionally to 17.5cm! They are borne in profusion on the spreading branches in June. Up to approx 6m tall by 8m across. For sun or semi shade.

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Cornus alternifolia 'Argentea'

Very distinct and extremely attractive medium to large shrub a bit like a miniature, multi-stemmed Wedding Cake Tree with layered, tabulate branching and silvery-white variegated leaves. Leaves are small however, giving an incredibly delicate effect. A plant deserving of a prime position.

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Cornus controversa 'Variegata'

'Wedding Cake Tree'. A well known and ornamental small deciduous tree with level and distinctly layered branching, and strikingly variegated white and green foliage, providing a unique effect in gardens. Grows well on any ordinary soil. Young plants usually look a bit lopsided, but will sort themselves out if left alone.

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Cornus excelsa F&M 57 (new)

From 2250m in the foothills of the mighty Pico de Orizaba, Mexico's highest peak, this was a tree to 10m laden with light blue fruits in November when we happened to be passing by. Clusters of white flowers in summer. A success in the few gardens in the British Isles that have tried it. Will probably make a large shrub here.

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Cornus florida subsp. urbiniana

A most unusual Mexican subspecies, bearing flowers with their showy white bracts clasping at their tips; never splaying out and therefore giving the appearance of lanterns. Most effective visually and very almost unique amongst Cornus. Free growing and hardy, this is a great success in Seattle, for example. Not good on very thin chalky soils.

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Cornus hongkongensis CMBS 2004.0757 (new)

An evergreen flowering dogwood species from China, where it has a wide distribution. This collection from Yunnan. Glossy dark green foliage flushes with a bronze tint and creamy-white C. kousa-like flowers are seen en-masse in July. Enjoys warmth and moisture in summer and some shelter in winter. Very successful at The Hillier Gardens, Hampshire.

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Cornus kousa 'Beni Fuji' (new)

This has among the deepest red-pink bracts of any form on the market and is a naturally shrubby grower. Bracts are narrowly pointed, deep red-pink and produced en-masse. Foliage is dark glossy green with red petioles and midribs, turning rich purple-red in autumn. A success in most reasonable soils, it will reach 2 to 3m eventually. found on Mt Fuji, in 1970.

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Cornus kousa 'Miss Satomi'

In this Japanese selection of this much loved large flowering shrub, the natural red pigments are much more in evidence. The spectacular bracts that surround the flowers in June are deep pink instead of white and the leaves are red tinted through the season, turning rich purple red in autumn. A success in most reasonable soils, it will reach about 3m eventually.

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Cornus kousa var. chinensis 'China Girl'

Spectacularly beautiful in flower, this form of the taller growing Chinese variety was selected for its large-bracted white flower heads, and its willingness to flower profusely, covering the branches, even on young plants. Autumn colour starts with a hint of red, building to rich bronze and crimson and lasts for up to a month. This var. will make a small tree.

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Correa lawrenceana

Mountain Correa. One of the largest growing of these Australasian evergreens, becoming a large shrub, with relatively small leathery leaves, velvety beige on their undersides, on distinctly orange-brown twigs. Masses of pendulous, narrow, bell-like red flowers are seen in spring. This proved surprisingly tough in the killing winter of 2010/11, at least in some areas. For sun and shelter.

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Corydalis flexuosa 'China Blue'

Electric blue flowers over a long season above dainty divided foliage. Moist well drained soil in shade. Height 25cm.

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Corylopsis sinensis

A magnificent deciduous shrub attaining a large size eventually. The branches strung in spring with pendulous racemes of cowslip-scented, bright yellow flowers, before the foliage emerges. Far too rarely seen in gardens, Corylopsis are first rate shrubs, hardy and suitable for most soils and situations.

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Corylopsis sinensis 'Spring Purple'

One of the loveliest of spring flowering shrubs with its drooping clusters of small, soft yellow, cowslip-scented flowers borne just before the new plum-purple leaves emerge. These turn green as the season progresses, but any further growth has this colour. A medium to large shrub for any reasonable soil.

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Corylus fargesii

New from China, this hardy single stemmed tree is a rather exciting introduction, mainly due to its bark qualities. The beige bark exfoliates quite strikingly in a similar way to, say, Betula nigra, giving tones of russet and pinky-copper. New leaves are dark red, expanding green and broad. Strong growing, this should make a medium to large tree here. Particularly rare.

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Cosmos x Dahlia 'Mexican Black'

Apparently from a wild collection in Mexico, this has very dark black-red, slightly scented flowers with crinkled petals on stems to about 90cm above deep green divided foliage. Treat as a Dahlia and leave in with a mulch or dig up and store over winter.

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Cotinus 'Grace'

To me the best of the purple Smoke Bushes, this is a vigorous large shrub bearing soft, plummy, purplish-red leaves which glow when backlit by the sun, especially in autumn when they turn scarlet. Large, purplish-pink, conical clusters of 'smoky' flowers in summer. Much nicer than those nasty black purple varieties. Can be pruned hard.

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Crinum campanulatum

A rare member of the genus, confined to the Eastern Cape of South Africa where it inhabits seasonally wet areas, with the lower half of the plant immersed in water for some weeks. Dormant for many months in the wild, in cultivation it will remain evergreen if protected in winter. Red-pink to white lily flowers produced in summer. Perhaps best in a pot, submerged in a pond for the summer and dried somewhat in winter.

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Crinum x powellii 'Album'

A huge bulb, bulking quickly to form clumps, with white trumpet flowers in summer over big mounds of glossy, dark-green, exotic, snake-like foliage. Height 120cm in flower. Full sun in rich soil.

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Crocosmia 'Hellfire'

More striking even than 'Lucifer', of a richer red and flowering a little later in July/Aug, with dark stems and branched spikes of the most vivid deep red to 1m tall. Pleated upright green foliage. Sun.

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Crocosmia 'Saracen' (new)

A shortish dark leaved variety with foliage washed with brown. Fairly large deep red flowers on stems to only 55cm, July-Sept.

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Crocosmia pottsii (new)

Orange-red flowers on wiry, arching stems to 75cm in late summer. For a sunny site in moist soils.

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Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora 'Babylon' (new)

One of the finer larger flowered forms with blooms of an intanse red orange in late summer on stems to approx 75cm high. For a sunny site, though still flowering well in semi-shade.

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Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora 'Zeal Tan' (new)

A short form to about 50cm with intense, deep orange-red flowers later than most, in Aug/Sept.

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Cryptotaenia japonica f. atropurpurea (new)

Purple Mitsuba. A delicious Oriental salad leaf and good for shade. The attractive maroon leaves are used raw in salads and the roots can be blanched and sautéed in oil. More than that, it is an attractive umbel for the garden, reaching 1m high with pinkish gypsophila like flowers.

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Cunninghamia lanceolata 'Glauca'

This is the wonderful blue leaved form of this exotic looking but quite hardy Chinese conifer. Very rarely seen, this form will reach the same size as the standard green form, which means normally a medium sized tree, only becoming larger if very happy and/or given 100yrs or so. Best away from the very coldest exposed sites.

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Cyclamen hederifolium f. albiflorum

The pure white flowered form of the classic autumn flowered species. Easy and tough in sun or shade. Dormant in summer and therefore very drought tolerant.

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Cyrtomium devexiscapulae (new)

An unusual Holly fern with a wide range in Eastern Asia, but as yet rarely planted here. Up to 80cm high with glossy, leathery dark green fronds composed of long pointed well spaced pinnae (leaflets) in up to 10 pairs per frond. Suitable for a sheltered, shaded, humusy position in most areas. A good bold contrast to finer textured ferns etc.

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Dacrycarpus dacrydioides - hardy form

Normally thought tender, the form I grow and propagate has been hardy to at least -12c outside, frozen solid in a pot through the mega winter of December 2010! An individual, distinctive and attractive small tree in the UK where it forms a crown of arching, pendulous very slender branches clad in very small, narrow, two ranked, spirally arranged, brown tinted leaves.

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Dactylicapnos platycarpa

A particularly unusual, recently named climbing dicentra. Forming herbaceous climbing stems to perhaps 2 to 3m each year, attaching themselves with tendrils and bearing clusters of bright yellow dicentra flowers in summer. Hardiness unknown, so plant in a protected spot and mulch over in winter. For sun or semi-shade, perhaps happier in the latter.

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Dactylicapnos sp. NJM 12.042

From the hill country of Manipur, NE India. Forming herbaceous climbing stems to perhaps 3m each year, attaching themselves with tendrils and bearing clusters of bright yellow dicentra flowers in summer. Should be pretty hardy plant, but mulch over in winter if worried. For sun or semi-shade.

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Dahlia imperialis

The giant mother of all Dahlia, reaching up to about 4m in suitable conditions before flowering, though the large, pale-pink, single flowers are produced very late, in early winter, so frost free early winter conditions are needed to see them. Very hardy if mulched well, though in my experience doesn't really need it. Huge foliage and thick stems a joy in themselves.

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Dahlia merckii - dark flowered

This is the darkest Dahlia merckii money can buy, raised from one of our collections from Mexico. A fairly hardy species with pretty, single, small flowers in a vivid deep lilac-pink, on stems to 1.5m, flowering in late summer. Easily grown in a well drained sunny position. Mulch in winter.

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Dahlia merckii compact

A dwarf version of this fairly hardy species with a different growth habit. There are many more shoots and they're less straggly. Simple, pinky-lilac flowers on stems to 75cm in late summer. Easy to grow in well drained soil in sun. Mulch over in winter to be safe, though very tough.

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Dahlia rudis

Derived from plants we found in Mexico, this very uncommon species reaches about 2m on thick black-purple stems, with large green foliage topped by fairly large purple pink single flowers in autumn.

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Dahlia sp. nova? F&M 312

Almost certainly a new species, found by me in a moist sheltered site in NE Mexico in 2005 at 1020m alt. beneath Quercus rhysophylla, with seed secured in 2006. Particularly exotic looking glossy green compound foliage is a notable feature together with sturdy, fluted, wind tolerant stems. Pale lilac-pink flowers with a distinct central yellow star, to 2.5m, above the foliage in late autumn. Hardy!

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Daphne 'Spring Beauty'

A cross between D. aff. sureil and D. bholua 'Peter Smithers', this has fragrant lilac-pink flowers borne in early spring over a particularly long period. The flowers are attractively less crowded in the inflorescence than D. bholua. Makes a medium to large evergreen shrub, for well drained soil and a sheltered site, though this has taken -10c with no damage.

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Daphne acutiloba 'Fragrant Cloud'

A selection from plants introduced by Compton, D'Arcy and Rix from SW China. The long, narrow, dark-green leathery leaves provide a fine backdrop to the deliciously and spicily scented creamy-white flowers, borne over a long period in spring. Attractive bright orange-scarlet fruits are not often seen. Upright and bushy to 1.2m tall. Any well drained soil.

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Daphne bholua 'Garden House Enchantress'

A particularly floriferous form of the species, selected from many seed raised plants in Devon, bearing a multitude of heavenly scented white and purple-pink tinged flowers in the depths of winter. Reasonably well drained soil in sun or semi shade, with some shelter. Height approx 2m

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Daphne bholua 'Garden House Ghost'

A particularly good white flowered form of the species, selected at the Garden House, Devon, bearing a multitude of heavenly scented pure white flowers in the depths of winter. Reasonably well drained soil in sun or semi shade, with some shelter. Height approx 2m

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Daphne bholua 'Garden House Red Stem'

A form of the species with particularly purple-red stems selected from many seed raised plants in Devon, bearing a multitude of heavenly scented white and purple-pink tinged flowers in the depths of winter. Reasonably well drained soil in sun or semi shade, with some shelter. Height approx 2m

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Daphne bholua 'Garden House Sentinel'

A particularly upright form of the species, selected from many seed raised plants in Devon, bearing a multitude of heavenly scented white and purple-pink tinged flowers in the depths of winter. Reasonably well drained soil in sun or semi shade, with some shelter. Height approx 2m

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Daphne bholua 'Jacqueline Postill'

Often regarded as the all-round best form of the species, though most plants sold today are micro-propagated and seem to produce fewer flowers. These are grafted from my old plant to avoid such problems. A fabulous evergreen, medium sized shrub with rounded clusters of large white/pink flowers, filling the garden with a delicious scent in Jan/Feb.

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Daphne bholua 'Limpsfield' (new)

A recent selection of this fine evergreen medium sized shrub from the Himalaya. A particularly floriferous form, the heavenly scented flowers are seen in the depths of winter, usually in Feb, and are rich purple-pink in bud with some of that colour bleeding into the white open faces. Reasonably well drained soil in sun or semi shade, with some shelter.

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Daphne bholua 'Peter Smithers'

A very fine form of the species named after that great plantsman, who originally collected seed from the Daman ridge in Nepal. Evergreen or sometimes semi-deciduous, the flowers start as very dark red-purple buds, opening to white flushed with red-purple. For sun or semi-shade in any ordinary soil.

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Daphne bholua NJM 13.115 (new)

A collection from the slopes of Japfü Peak, Nagaland, NE India at 2570m asl. This form has pure white flowers and evergreen foliage.

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Daphne laureola subsp. philippi

A dwarf Pyrenean form of our native evergreen Daphne, shrunken in all its parts, making a little hummock of a shrub with glossy leathery leaves. Tolerating the deepest shade, it is happier and better looking in brighter conditions and suitable for a raised bed or rock garden. Clusters of tiny fragrant yellow-green flowers borne in Feb/Mar. Any free drained soil.

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Daphne mezereum

An old classic, winter flowering, small deciduous shrub, making a bushy, rounded plant of about a metre high, heavily clothed in purplish-pink scented flowers in February. Scarlet fruits follow. For any free drained soil in either sun or shade.

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Daphne odora 'Aureomarginata'

Hardly needing an intro, this much admired small evergreen shrub has one of the most powerful fragrances of any plant that we can grow. The clusters of piercingly citrus-sweet purple-pink and white flowers are borne all over the bush in late winter and early spring. The foliage has a narrow creamy yellow margin. Ordinary well drained soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Daphne odora f. alba 'Sakiwaka' (new)

This is the pure white flowered, plain green leaved form, without all the variegation (never a bad thing). A tasteful subtle beauty with the same utterly supreme scent as ever in March. A small rounded evergreen shrub for sun or semi-shade and any well drained soil.

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Daphne pontica

A small, rounded, hardy evergreen shrub from the Near East, very tolerant of shade and poor soil. Clusters of spidery, yellow-green flowers in April/May, deliciously fragrant in the evening. Similar in a way to our native D. laureola, but with broader leaves and better flowers.

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Daphniphyllum himalense var. macropodum

A superb, unusual, evergreen, large shrub with fairly sizable, Rhododendron-like foliage, pale beneath and with red petioles. Easy and hardy in any good soil, acid or alkaline, in sun or shade. Male flowers, when in bud, look a bit like Mulberries. An aristocratic foliage plant of fine form.

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Daphniphyllum sp. NJM 10.147

Found in far N. Vietnam at an altitude of 2300m, this collection is proving difficult to name with certainty. Rather than attach an incorrect name just to help sell this, in the way some do, I would prefer to just tell you that it was a handsome large shrub with elongated black fruit, bold evergreen leaves with white-glaucous undersides and classic Daphniphyllum good looks.

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Dasyphyllum diacanthoides (new)

An evergreen tree in the family Compositae bearing heads of most attractive creamy-white, rather atypical daisies. From the cool temperate rainforests of Southern Chile where it is endemic, growing with such lovely trees as Nothofagus dombeyi and Drimys winteri and also drier areas This survived the hellish cold of Dec 2010 at Ness BG.

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Deinanthe caerulea

A clumping woodlander from China with fleshy nodding saucer-like slatey-blue flowers on 45cm stems over bristly, attractive leaves. For humus rich soil in shade. An herbaceous member of the Hydrangea family.

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Dendromecon rigida

Highly prized and always in demand, with never enough available, this is a 'Tree Poppy' from California best planted and trained against a very sunny wall in well drained soil, where it will make a tall shrub with rigid, narrow, glaucous, evergreen leaves and a very long succession of poppy-like, bright, buttercup yellow flowers in summer.

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Deschampsia cespitosa 'Goldtau'

Meaning 'gold dew', this German selection of Hair grass has particularly fine textured, translucent, cloud-like inflorescences, opening yellow-green in early summer and luminous if side or backlit. One of the shorter cultivars reaching up to 60cm in flower. Naturally clump forming, this flowers best in full sun.

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Deschampsia cespitosa 'Schottland''

Originally from Scotland, this German cultivar is fairly typical of the species with dark green foliage and fine textured, translucent, cloud-like inflorescences opening light green in early summer. reaching up to 1m in flower. Naturally clump forming, this flowers best in full sun.

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Desmodium elegans Dark form (new)

A small to medium sized Chinese shrub with attractive trifoliate leaves, composed of fairly broad, pale green leaflets, and large panicles of intense purplish-pink pea flowers in summer, followed by flattened seed pods. Well drained soil and sun.

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Deutzia 'Dark Eyes'

A very fine 'new' form with masses of comparatively large flowers, white, marked down the back of each petal with a line of purple pink which stains through somewhat. The centre of each flower is dark red-purple surrounding the stamens. A very hardy deciduous medium sized shrub for sun or semi-shade in most soils.

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Deutzia 'Iris Alford'

A relatively new hybrid, raised at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, making a small deciduous shrub with roughly hairy leaves and clusters of comparatively large flowers in summer; deep purple-pink in bud, opening white-pink inside, deep purple-pink on the reverse, the petals with white margins. Tough, easy, hardy. For any ordinary soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Deutzia calycosa 'Dali'

An exceptional form of this still rare species, both collected in China and named by Roy Lancaster. The flowers on this medium sized deciduous shrub are larger than the norm though of the usual, handsome, pink-tinged white. Leaves are grey-green. Hardy and easy in most situations.

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Deutzia grandiflora

A distinct species from N. China, in that the white flowers, borne in early May, are larger than others and in clusters of no more than three. A deciduous, very hardy shrub to about 1.8m high, for sun or semi-shade. Tough and easy, though rarely encountered. This collection by Chris Sanders from 70km north of Beijing. Like Magnolias, best sited away from late spring frost.

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Deutzia longifolia

None too often encountered, this is a fine, deciduous, medium sized shrub from W. China with long narrow foliage and large clusters of white flowers in this form (the old var. farreri), in June/July. Very tolerant and tough, to about 2m tall.

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Deutzia longifolia 'Veitchii'

A fine clone of this rarely offered hardy, deciduous, upright medium sized shrub from W. China with long narrow foliage on arching branches and large clusters of rich lilac-pink tinted open faced flowers in June/July, to about 2m tall.

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Deutzia multiradiata Og 93004

A new species from Sichuan, China, Collected by Mikinori Ogisu, forming a low growing shrub. Small, star shaped white flowers with conspicuous golden anthers are borne in loose corymbs in June. Most remarkable for its evergreen foliage, glossy green above and white-glaucous beneath. Far hardier than previously assumed, but give it a sheltered site.

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Deutzia ningpoensis

Sometimes known as D. chunii, this is a first rate species. A medium sized shrub with arching branches, covered in late June in a multitude of white flowers with reflexed, narrow petals, borne on 10cm panicles all along the branches. The leaves are narrow and grey beneath. This has both an AGM and an AM from the RHS, if you like that sort of thing.

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Deutzia pulchra - pink tinged form

A beautiful medium to large sized hardy deciduous shrub of noble aspect, for any soil in sun or semi-shade. The drooping spikes of pink-tinged white, golden centred flowers in June have been likened to lily-of-the-valley (without the scent). Mature plants have wonderful pale cinnamon bark peeling off in smooth papery sheets. One of the finest of all Deutzias.

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Deutzia setchuenensis var. corymbiflora 'Kiftsgate' (new)

An exceptional new form, named here. A deciduous medium sized, comparatively slow growing shrub to 2m. Innumerable clusters of white, star-like flowers during July/Aug over sea green, rough to the touch foliage. Even pretty in bud when the plant is speckled with tiny white dots. The finest form of this species with larger flowers, creating a superb effect.

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Deutzia setchuenensis var. corymbiflora NJM 11.096

Our collection from Guizhou, China, this is one of the finest species in the genus. A deciduous medium sized, comparatively slow growing shrub to 2m. Innumerable clusters of white, star-like flowers during July/Aug over sea green, rough to the touch foliage. Even pretty in flower bud when the plant is speckled with tiny white dots.

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Deutzia taiwanensis

Collected in the mountain forests of Taiwan, this forms a slender branched shrub up to 1.5m high, with terminal heads of white flowers, similar in form to D. pulchra, in summer. The pointed narrow foliage is grey-green. A hardy and unusual species for any well drained soil in sun or semi shade.

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Dichroa aff. febrifuga NJM 10.042

Collected in N. Vietnam on Tay Con Linh, this Asian Hydrangea relative, like many of its cousins, has flowers which are very blue on acid soils, and pink on alkaline. An evergreen shrub to 3m high for mild areas. Diffuse heads of thick petalled flowers produced in late summer/autumn, followed by intense-blue berries. The true species is extremely rare in cultivation.

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Dichroa aff. hirsuta NJM 10.051 (new)

I found this in N. Vietnam on the very little visited mountain Tay Con Linh at 1850m, where it formed an upright semi-evergreen shrub to about 2m tall. The foliage is particularly narrow and the terminal clusters of white flowers in late summer are followed by striking cobalt-blue berries. Hardiness unknown, but best not too cold.

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Dichroa cyanea NJM 13.104 (new)

A collection of this Himalayan species from 2400m in Nagaland, NE India. A close Hydrangea relative, but with vivid cobalt blue berries, following the either blue or pink dense heads of flower, the colour depending on soil acidity, seen autumn into winter if mild. A semi-deciduous shrub for mild gardens or very sheltered corners.

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Dichroa sp. from Guizhou, China (new)

An unusual species found in on Leigongshan, Guizhou, 1800m, in 2011; the foliage is thick textured like no other species I know, with impressed veins on the upper surface and a pale underside. White flower buds open to blue flowers (on acid soils) in late summer, followed by purple berries. An evergreen Hydrangea relative, probably best suited to milder areas.

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Dierama argyreum

Clusters of white bell flowers backed by silvery-white bracts dangle from tall arching stems in summer. Height 1.5m. Sun, not too dry in summer.

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Dierama igneum

A species Wand flower with pendulous rich pink flowers on stems 50-150cm high. Sun, not too dry in summer.

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Digitalis ferruginea 'Gigantea'

Self-seeding short lived evergreen perennial foxglove with particularly beautiful, tall, straight, very narrow spikes of densely set, hooded, apricot-yellow flowers, brown netted in their throats. Dark green leaves are glossy and narrow. A particularly large form up to 1.8m high, flowering over a very long period in summer. Sun or part shade.

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Diospyros lotus PAB 10032 (new)

A collection of the 'Date plum' from the Hyrcanian forests bordering the Caspian Sea in Southern Azerbaijan. Related to both Ebony and Kaki (Sharon fruit), this perfectly hardy small tree makes a good specimen with dark polished foliage. Female trees carry an abundance of warm-yellow edible fruits in autumn if pollinated by a male.

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Dipelta ventricosa

Highly prized amongst those in the know, this rare, large growing, deciduous hardy shrub from W. China is covered in May with conspicuous, Weigela like, vibrant deep lilac-pink flowers with golden yellow throats. Winged papery fruits follow. Always in demand and rarely available. Any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Dipelta yunnanensis

A large deciduous shrub much prized and sought after by plantsmen. Weigela like flowers, cream tinged light pink with orange throats, borne in great profusion in May followed by interesting papery, winged fruit. More refined foliage than D. floribunda but smaller flowers. Hardy and suitable for most soils in sun or semi-shade.

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Dipsacus asper (new)

A tall Asian perennial teasel with rounded heads of white to yellowish flowers on leafy stems to 2m. An important plant in Tradition Chinese herbal medicine and also recently tested for use against Alzheimer's disease. A collection from Guizhou, SW China.

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Disanthus cercidifolius 'Ena Nishiki'

A most unusual variegated clone of this always in demand autumn colouring deciduous shrub from Japan. The slightly grey-green heart shaped leaves show an irregular white margin which remains distinct as the rest of the leaf turns to shades of red and purple in autumn. For moist lime free soil in semi-shade, where it will make a medium sized hardy shrub.

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Disporopsis aspersa

Short stout Solomon's Seal look-alike with broad evergreen foliage. Little creamy bells with dark mouths and a fine scent hang from the 30cm stems in June. Spreads slowly to form ground covering patches in leafy soil in shade.

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Disporopsis pernyi 'Bill Baker'

A rare form, found by Bill Baker in a Chinese market, more deciduous than the norm with slightly narrower leaves. Wonderfully sweetly scented white bells with flared mouths and dark markings hang from arching, semi-evergreen, leafy stems to about 30cm. Spreads slowly to form patches in leafy soil in shade. A Solomon's Seal relative from China.

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Disporopsis undulata

An evergreen Solomon's Seal relative reaching only 20cm high and spreading slowly to form a patch of arching stems bearing undulating dark green leaves. The little scented bell-like flowers are white with purple speckles and a yellow interior and are produced along the stems in May/June. Violet berries replace the flowers and are seen through winter. Hardy, for a woodsy spot in well drained humus soil.

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Disporum aff. longistylum NJM 11.011 (new)

A collection from Leigongshan, Guizhou, SW China at about 2000m asl. This formed a well branched perennial to about 1m. Flowers not seen as yet, but probably pale greenish yellow. For semi-shade and humusy soil.

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Disporum cantoniense 'Blueberry Bere' (new)

A unique new colour form we found at altitude in Manipur, NE India, bearing plenty of lilac bell-like flowers on vigorous upright stems in late spring, followed by black berries. For humus rich soil in semi-shade

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Disporum longistylum 'Night Heron' seedlings

As 'Night Heron' itself only produces a small amount of propagating material each year why not have a seedling, which comes true anyway... with a bit of rogueing here and there? Magnificent dark-chocolate new growth extends on almost bamboo-like stems with contrasting sheaths. These branch and bear creamy green bells followed by black fruit. To 1.8m, for semi-shade.

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Disporum megalanthum (new)

Glossy, broad, well veined foliage on arching stems ending in white open mouthed bells at 30cm in late spring/early summer, extending to 60cm in blue-black fruit late in the season. Hardy, for shade/semi-shade and woodsy soil.

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Disporum viridescens

A Solomon's Seal relative from China and Japan, making a spreading clump of strong upright leafy stems to about 50cm, arching at their tips, where the clusters of starry greenish-white flowers dangle in April/May. Best in leafy soil with shade. Hardy.

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Doodia aspera 'Rough Ruby' (new)

Noted for its rough textured fronds that emerge pink-red, this Antipodean species produces said fronds from 15 to 45cm tall and enjoys a warm well drained position. From a gently spreading rootstock this forms patches. Best in the warmer parts of the UK and deciduous if grown outside here.

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Dracunculus canariensis (new)

Quite the opposite of the stinking D. vulgaris, this white flowered elegant beauty from the Canary Isles is generally smaller to about 1m tall. The slim white spathes with a pale yellow spadix inside are borne above the divided green foliage in spring to early summer. A winter growing species, dormant in summer, therefore needing cool glasshouse conditions. Rarely offered.

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Dracunculus canariensis (new)

Quite the opposite of the stinking D. vulgaris, this white flowered elegant beauty from the Canary Isles is generally smaller to about 1m tall. The slim white spathes with a pale yellow spadix inside are borne above the divided green foliage in spring to early summer. A winter growing species, dormant in summer, therefore needing cool glasshouse conditions. Rarely offered.

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Dregea sinensis

A lovely sweet smelling thing for a warm sheltered wall or conservatory in cold areas. Stems clamber up to 3m with suitable support and produce long-stalked umbels of deliciously scented, Hoya like, red spotted, white flowers in summer over pale green leaves, felted beneath.

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Drimys winteri var. winteri

A very handsome large, upright evergreen shrub or small tree for a fairly sheltered site. Can't be mistaken for anything else with its large leathery leaves, pale glaucous beneath, and loose clusters of starry white flowers in May. This has leaves slightly smaller than var. chilensis, but the flowers are most often sweetly scented, unlike the weird scent of that variety.

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Dryopteris erythrosora from Guizhou (new)

Collections from Guizhou, China with particularly good dark stipes (frond stalks). One of the finest garden ferns, being tough, vigorous, evergreen and colourful. New fronds emerge red-pink in spring, turning bronze then glossy-green, with the sori underneath bright red. Bi-pinnate, triangular fronds reach about 60cm high. Any reasonable soil in semi-shade.

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Dryopteris sieboldii

A most unusual and striking hardy fern from Japan. The pinnate fronds are composed of few, large, very leathery pale grey-green pinnae, and reach about 50cm. Looks good associated with exotic plants of contrasted with finer ferns. Semi-shade and leafy soil, but actually rather enjoys warm summers.

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Dryopteris wallichiana

A striking fern on account of the dark unfurling fronds. The effect is produced by the black or brown scales on the stalk which travel right up the underside of the frond. Fronds can reach up to 120cm and are rich green, long-lance-shaped and divided into many narrow pinnae. Good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Echeveria 'Ghostbuster'

An exceptionally pale blue new hybrid from the USA, vigorously forming clusters of plump rosettes. Sun and well drained compost with water in summer and a dry winter. Easy outside in summer and overwintered on a windowsill or glasshouse.

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Echeveria secunda large form

Splendid glaucous rosettes to 30cm diameter if offsets are removed, otherwise a mass of smaller ones, though still large for the species. Orange and yellow flowers in summer. Fairly hardy, if planted vertically in a wall etc, but best kept dry inside until you've bulked up enough to experiment. Sun and excellent drainage.

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Edgeworthia chrysantha 'Grandiflora'

A Daphne relative from China making a small to medium, rounded, deciduous shrub up to about 1.5m tall. Densely clustered, scented, yellow flowers in nodding heads at the tips of the naked branches in late winter or early spring. Each individual flower is clothed on the outside with silvery silky hairs. This form is noticeably larger in all its parts with excellent foliage.

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Elaeagnus 'Quicksilver'

One of the silveryest of shrubs and hardier than you'll ever need it to be. Fast growing deciduous shrub forming an upright plant if you don't hack it back, which, by the way, it responds admirably to, forming a bushy dome. Sweetly scented small, creamy flowers in early summer. A sun lover, it is very drought tolerant.

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Elaeagnus multiflora

A medium sized deciduous species from China and Japan with leaves pale green above and silvery beneath. Small sweetly fragrant cream flowers borne in April and May scent the air around. They are followed by highly decorative ox-blood red, oblong, edible fruit in July. Very hardy and easy on any well drained soil.

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Elaeagnus umbellatus 'Sweet 'n' Tart' (new)

A vigorous, hardy, sweet smelling deciduous large shrub when the masses of fragrant white flowers are borne in May and June. These are followed by splendidly tasty small red fruit en masse in autumn, which look very fine combined with the leaves; soft green above and silvery beneath.

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Eleutherococcus aff. leucorrhizus PAB 8119 (new)

A semi-scandent shrub to about 2m or more, with compound palmate foliage in the style of Schefflera etc. and white flowers in terminal orbicular umbels in late summer/autumn in the style of Hedera and indeed being followed by large dense orbicular clusters of fat black berries. The stems are clad in well spaced prickles. Found at 1800m on Fanjingshan, Guizhou, China.

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Eleutherococcus sp. (new)

Found on Shirui Peak, E. Manipur, N.E. India this unidentified species is not lax in growth as some are, nor particularly well armed, forming medium sized shrubs with trifoliate foliage and rounded clusters of white flower in summer, followed by black berries. Hardiness untested as yet.

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Elsholtzia flava PAB 13.012 (new)

A collection from the Japfü massif, Nagaland, NE India, at 1830m asl. This species has broad sumptuous foliage that emerges deep purple and holds this colour for a while, especially at the extremities of the leaves. Terminal heads of small warm-yellow flowers in late autumn. Height approx 1.5m. Mulch over the base in winter to be safe.

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Eomecon chionantha

Poppy of the Dawn. Crystalline white flowers and handsome shallowly lobed grey-green leaves. Height 45cm. Spreads in shade, making very useful groundcover.

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Epimedium 'Domino' (new)

One of the finest of not only the modern hybrids, but of all Epimedium. Huge amounts of soft-red centred white flowers are produced on a multitude of burgundy stalks in spring to a height of 60cm, over a wide mound of elongated foliage that emerges heavily speckled with maroon. Superb.

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Epimedium 'Jean O'Neill'

New evergreen floriferous hybrid from Hampshire proving rather tough. Flowers composed of creamy-white sepals with purple, yellow tipped spurs. Glossy, prickly foliage. Height 30cm. Shade and humus rich soil.

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Epimedium 'Pink Champagne' (new)

One of the finest of the new wave of hybrids, raised by Darrel Probst in the USA. This bears a mass of pale-pink, raspberry-red centred flowers on inflorescences up to nearly 40cm long in April. Combining with the flowers is the heavily maroon-speckled new foliage, which expands to be long tapered and evergreen. For humus rich soil in semi-shade

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Epimedium 'Red Maximum' (new)

A new hybrid from Belgium, a cross between E. grandiflorum 'Freya' and E. membranaceum. Dark burgundy flowers to 35cm high in spring and evergreen foliage emerging with nice tints. For humus rich soil in semi-shade.

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Epimedium 'The Giant' (new)

No truer word was said. Discovered and introduced by Darrell Probst in 2001 from Chongqing and initially sold for $500 a piece, this is like no other Epimedium. Close to E. wushanense, but with vast panicles of soft-yellow, amber centred flowers from 1 to 1.8m tall, seen over a few months from spring!! This needs a little light staking or to be grown up between low shrubs for support.

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Epimedium acuminatum

Mauve and white spurred flowers in spring over heavily purple-red mottled new foliage. Height to 30cm. Partial shade and humus rich soil. Bulks up well.

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Epimedium acuminatum 'Night Mistress' (new)

A more compact selection with slightly darker purple and white spurred flowers in spring over heavily purple-red mottled new foliage. Height to 30cm. Partial shade and humus rich soil. Bulks up well. Found by Darrell Probst near Nanchuan, Chongqing, China.

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Epimedium acuminatum Yellow flowered (new)

White and yellow flowers in spring over mottled new foliage. Height to 30cm. Partial shade and humus rich soil.

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Epimedium davidii EMR 4125

Bright yellow, spurred flowers in spring over attractive Berberis-like, evergreen foliage. Height 45cm. Part shade.

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Epimedium dolichostemon Og 81.010 (new)

Masses of small white flowers with red centres over superbly red mottled and strikingly shaped new foliage in spring. Humus rich soil in shade, not dry in summer. Height 30cm. A Mikinori Ogisu collection from Sichuan.

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Epimedium ecalcaratum Og 93.082

Exquisite spurless yellow flowers in late spring. Attractive evergreen foliage with small leaflets. Height to 30cm. Humus rich soil in shade. A collection from W Sichuan, China.

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Epimedium fargesii 'Pink Constellation' Og 93.023

Soft lilac-pink, nodding, backswept flowers en-masse in spring over narrow evergreen foliage which emerges heavily washed in soft red. Humus rich soil in shade. Another Mikinori Ogisu collection from China.

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Epimedium grandiflorum 'Red Beauty' (new)

A deciduous species with new foliage expanding reddish-bronze before the rich purple-red flowers rise above in spring. For lime-free soil in shade and humusy soil. Height 25cm

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Epimedium membranaceum

Large, widespread, light-yellow spurred petals with contrasting paler bracts, seen over a very long period from late spring to potentially August or September, when others are long over. This forms a good spreading patch and forms an effective ground cover over time in not too dry conditions. Height 40cm. Humus-rich soil in some shade.

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Epimedium mikinorii CC 990001 (new)

Pinky-purple flowers in April on this rare form of a rarely seen species, named after Mikinori Ogisu, but this form collected by Darrel Probst. The new foliage is particularly well coloured, turning green and then persistent in most winters. Height 30-40cm. For humus rich soil in semi-shade.

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Epimedium pinnatum subsp. colchicum L321

Glossy evergreen leaves. Bright yellow flowers in early spring. Very tough and drought tolerant in most soils. Height 40cm. Shade. An early Roy Lancaster collection.

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Epimedium pubescens Og 91.003

Large panicles of very many small white flowers in spring over particularly well marked new foliage, turning green later. For humusy semi-shade.

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Epimedium rhizomatosum Og 92.114 (new)

Particularly spidery pale yellow flowers in spring over evergreen foliage. A spreading plant with a height to 45cm, covering a good patch over time. Humus rich soil in light shade. The type collection from 2040m alt, Leibo Xian, Selenggong, Sichuan, China.

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Epimedium sagittatum 'Warlord' (new)

A spectacular foliage plant on account of the striking obliquely arrow-shaped, exceptionally large leaflets and especially in the colour of new growth in this form, being very heavily speckled in rich maroon and narrower than typical . A rarely seen or available Chinese species with tiny white and yellow flowers, but in heads of 50 or more in spring. 45cm. Semi-shade and humus.

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Epimedium wushanense 'Spiny Leaved' CC 014631 (new)

Cream-white flowers with soft yellow centres in April-May on unusual and distinctively congested panicles up to 40cm tall over a large mound of foliage with strikingly spiny and undulate margins; each leaflet up to 15cm long emerges heavily red mottled. A Darrel Probst introduction from China and very different to clones like 'Caramel'.

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Epimedium wushanense Og 93.019 (new)

Big spidery soft yellow flowers in huge quantities, on very tall stems to 80cm when established. Excellent evergreen leaves, composed of long narrow leaflets, making a comparatively huge mound. Humus rich soil in light shade.

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Epimedium x rubrum

Crimson and yellow flowers in spring, the new foliage maroon with green veins, green in summer, then red again in winter. Height 30cm. Part shade and humus-rich soil. A superb foliage plant for ground cover.

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Epimedium x versicolor 'Neosulphureum'

Tough, vigorous, evergreen ground cover plant. Soft yellow flowers in spring over bronzed new foliage. Later flowering than 'Sulphureum'. For most soils, even rather dry ones, in light shade.

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Epimedium x versicolor 'Sulphureum'

A tough, vigorous, evergreen ground cover plant. Soft yellow flowers in spring over bronzed new foliage. Very similar to 'Neosulphureum' but earlier flowering. For most soils, even rather dry ones, in light shade.

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Epimedium x warleyense

Coppery orange flowers in early spring. Light green foliage. Height 30cm. Part shade and humusy soil is best, but very tough.

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Epimedium zhushanense (new)

A splendid richly coloured species from China, with a very restricted wild distribution, being found only in Zhushan, Hubei Province. Flowers are composed of dark purple spurs backed by paler, mauvey-pink sepals, seen in spring. Handsome evergreen spiny foliage is distinct from most others in having simple leaves (i.e. not leaflets). For humusy soil in shade, not too dry.

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Equisetum hyemale var. affine

A US native horsetail with elegant vertical green stems handsomely banded with black. Best in a container which will show off the mass of 1.5m stems to great effect and also keep it under control. Hardy, this needs moisture at all times so sit it in a tray of water or plant at the edge of a large pond or suitable bog in sun or shade.

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Equisetum ramosissimum var. japonicum (of hort.)

This is probably correctly E. hymale. Masses of particularly slim green vertical stems marked at intervals with horizontal black rings at the nodes. Best containerized, which will show off the mass of stems to great effect and also keep it under control. Hardy, this needs moisture at all times so sit it in a tray of water or plant at the edge of a large pond or suitable bog in sun or shade.

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Eragrostis curvula 'Totnes Burgundy'

Long, delicate, arching panicles of grey flowers in summer. Very fine leaves, wine-red from midway in summer. Height 90cm. Sun. A lovely new form raised by my friends the Suttons in Devon.

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Eragrostis curvula SH 10

A very good form of African Love Grass, in fact possibly a different species. Lovely delicate, arching, very diffuse panicles of tiny flowers in summer, olive-green-grey in bud and a mist of beige in flower. Height 1m. Sun. One of the finest, airiest grasses. A wonderful contrast to bold form.

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Eryngium 'Pen Blue' (new)

Similar to though apparently not quite an E. x zabelii, the flower heads are composed of large, branched, spiny ruffs, surrounding the central cone of flowers, all in an intense deep blue on flowering stems of violet-blue. Height 60cm. Any well drained soil in sun.

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Eryngium deppeanum ex F&M 54

Evergreen rosettes of viciously spine edged strap-like leaves, variably striped with a pale central marking and inflorescences to approx 75cm. Flowers spiny and green with dark blue centres. This form originally ollected west of Acultzingo, Puebla State, Mexico. 2250m alt. One of the most striking forms of the species I've seen.

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Eryngium venustum

A scarce, but highly attractive species from Mexico with extraordinary, very spiny silvery 'starfish' rosettes of foliage in light grey green. Silvery-white-green thimble flowers on stems to 60cm. Sun, and good drainage.

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Eryngium yuccifolium 'Kershaw Blue' (new)

A form of this Eastern North American species found by Tony Avent in S. Carolina. The 5cm wide spine edged foliage is an exceptional powder blue, a joy in itself. Branched umbels of thimble-like cream flower heads to 1.3m in summer.

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Erythrina crista-galli

Spectacular when in flower, indeed enough to bowl you over from 100 paces. Huge long heads of very big, intense crimson, waxy pea flowers borne in summer from coral buds, all atop prickly herbaceous stems with impressive trifoliolate leaves. Naturally a small tree in its native Brazil, but in this country cut back to a stump each winter. Warm wall and winter mulch please.

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Escallonia bifida (new)

One of the finest shrubs for late summer and autumn flower, this makes a dense large shrub with glossy dark-green foliage. Large panicles of pure white flowers cover the foliage late in the season. Requires the shelter of a wall away from mild areas.

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Eucalyptus cordata

The Silver Gum hails from SE Tasmania and forms a small tree of dense growth with smooth white bark with purple and green patches. The foliage is beautifully grey-silver, rounded in the juvenile stage and lanceolate as an adult. White flowers are seen in winter, even in the juvenile stage. Often grown as a bedding plant for foliage, but fairly hardy.

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Eucalyptus pauciflora ssp niphophila

'Snow Gum'. One of the most beautiful and certainly one of the hardiest of all Eucalypts, suffering little or no damage even in our very coldest winters. A small tree with very ornamental smooth patchwork peeling bark in green, grey-green and cream. Leathery small leaves on white shoots. Slower growing than most, but still gets on with it.

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Eucomis pallidiflora

A fairly large Pineapple Lily with greeny-white flowers on stems to about 75cm. Good soil in a fairly sheltered sunny position.

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Eucomis vandermerwei

A small Pineapple Lily with superbly red spotted leaves. Reddish flowers on spotted scapes. Height to 20cm. Sun, drainage.

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Eucryphia lucida 'Ballerina'

A pink selection of the species found by Ken Gillanders in the forests of NW Tasmania in 1991. As usual, this makes a large evergreen shrub, or even a small tree given many years, with slim, elegant foliage, glaucous beneath. Masses of fragrant round, saucer-like flowers, pale pink with a boss of stamens crimson at their base, in July. Neutral/Acid soil.

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Eucryphia lucida 'Chaplin's Variety'

A selected form from Marwood Hill, Devon, of this large, dense, evergreen shrub or small tree with larger and more densely set flowers. Covered in Jun/Jul with fragrant, white, pendulous, round, flowers over dainty narrow foliage, glaucous beneath. Enjoys reasonable shelter and neutral/acid soil.

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Eucryphia lucida 'Dumpling'

A brand new dwarf form of this lovely Tasmanian evergreen shrub. In this variety, selected by Sarah and Julian Sutton of Devon, the plant only reaches about 1m x 1m, considerably smaller than the norm and very suitable for smaller spaces. Flowers are typical, white and fragrant, produced freely in June and July. Neutral to acid soil please.

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Eucryphia milliganii

This sought after Tasmanian species is a relatively small grower making a slim tall shrub to small tree eventually. The dainty evergreen foliage is dark green above, pale glaucous beneath, and the flowers are small cups of pure white, freely produced in late summer, even on young plants. Best in neutral to acid soil, not too dry.

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Eucryphia moorei

From SE Australia comes this unusual member of the genus, making a small evergreen tree in the UK with particularly attractive foliage, having up to 13 slender leaflets of the same form as some members of the genus Sorbus. Masses of white flowers, similar to E. lucida, are produced in late summer. For the milder parts of our isles, on neutral to acid soil.

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Eucryphia x hillieri 'Winton'

An evergreen hybrid between E. lucida and E. moorei, raised by chance at Hillier Nurseries of Winchester and rarely offered for sale. Resembling E. lucida in flower with beautiful cup-shaped white flowers in late summer, though more like E. moorei in leaf with pinnate foliage composed of narrow leaflets, but fewer in number. For a sunny sheltered place with cool roots.

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Eucryphia x nymansensis 'Nymansay'

A very handsome dense, columnar, evergreen large shrub or small tree of rapid growth, wreathed in August and September with large round, white flowers. Best with some shelter from wind. I know of a plant that has grown healthily near here in the Cotswolds for about 30 yrs on thin rocky, very alkaline soil. A must for late summer.

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Euonymus aff. myrianthus Slim leaf NJM 11.016 (new)

Found in Guizhou at about 2000m asl, this was a large evergreen shrub to about 3m high with very attractive slim, lanceolate, leathery foliage. Vivid-yellow fruits open to show orange-scarlet seeds. This should be perfectly hardy, especially with some shelter.

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Euonymus alatus 'Compactus'

A small, slow growing, deciduous 'Spindle' making a dense shrub, very tolerant of almost any soil. One of the finest shrubs for extremely intense and reliable crimson-pink autumn colour. Branchlets can develop interesting corky wings, and reddish-purple fruit with orange berries are sometimes borne, though are lost in the amazing foliage colour.

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Euonymus fortunei var. minimus

A unique form of the species with tiny evergreen leaves, which, if planted in open ground, will climb/support its own short stems to make peaky mounds. If you plant a drift you end up with a surreal scene reminiscent of Karst limestone landscapes of SE Asia, or even a choppy sea!! Bizarre and fabulous when grown in this way. Bone hardy and easy.

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Euonymus hamiltonianus NJM 11.006

Found at the top of Leigong Shan, Guizhou, China, at 2150m, this represents a new introduction of the genuine species from an obscure area, generally un-botanised by the 'great planthunters'. Making a tough, spreading, deciduous hardy shrub to about 2.5m or more and bearing masses of bright rosy pink capsules in autumn opening to show scarlet-orange seeds.

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Euonymus myrianthus

From Western China, this Ernest Wilson introduction makes a hardy large evergreen shrub with fairly long, leathery foliage. The yellow-green flowers are seen in dense rounded heads up to 7.5cm across in summer, followed by orange-yellow fruits opening to show orange-scarlet seeds.

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Euonymus phellomanus

A superb Chinese 'Spindle Tree', making a hardy large shrub with exceptional and striking corky, winged shoots. A profusion of 4-lobed pink fruits with red seeds borne in autumn and, in a good year, excellent autumn colour. Easy on virtually any soil, even poor chalk.

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Euonymus sp. from Burma (new)

A species from NW Kachin, Burma, making a medium sized evergreen shrub to about 2m, with fairly large oblong-elliptic foliage and pale pink fruit with four very conspicuous and rather long horns, like E. cornutus, opening to show orange seeds. Hardiness untested.

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Euonymus sp. from China (new)

This particularly handsome species was obtained from the famous Japanese nursery of Mr Yamaguchi. It was originally collected in China, but is yet to be identified. An evergreen species with slim, fairly small foliage and a mass of dark-red flowers in spring, followed by distinctively shaped light pink capsules opening to show orange seeds. Apparently a small shrub.

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Euonymus sp. NJM 10.106

We found this on the side of Fan Si Pan Mountain, N. Vietnam at approx 1900m, where it formed evergreen shrubs to about 2m high bearing elegant foliage with a drip tip and generally four angled pink fruit, opening to show orange seeds in autumn. Growing in shady forest in nature, try this in a sheltered place - against a wall or between evergreen shrubs etc..

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Euonymus tingens ex LS&H 17559

An evergreen large shrub bearing mid sized elliptic dark green foliage. Conspicuously purple-veined creamy-white flowers in May and June are followed by pink fruits splitting to reveal scarlet-coated seeds in late autumn. Proven hardy in the south of the UK at least, even through very testing winters.

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Eupatorium maculatum 'Red Dwarf' (new)

A lower growing form of this normally rather large American, reaching to approx 1.3m tall. Black-purple stems are topped by domed heads of lavender pink flowers from darker buds from July to October. For good soil, not too bone dry, in sun or semi-shade.

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Eupatorium maculatum 'Riesenschirm'

A member of the Atropurpureum Group and one of the finest, holding an AGM from the RHS. A robust perennial with huge fluffy purple-pink flattened domes of flower in Sept-Oct atop burgundy stems, contrasting with the large elegant lance-shaped foliage. Loves sun moisture and rich soil, though will take the opposite, but become smaller. Up to 2.5m.

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Euphorbia stygiana

The true Azorean species with impressive rosettes of thick, leathery, rich green foliage at the ends of low, serpentine, green stems. Yellowy-brown clusters of slightly honey-scented flowers are seen in May/June. A few specialist nurseries incorrectly sell the hybrid E. x pasteurii under this name, though the two aren't that similar. Hardier than E. mellifera.

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Euphorbia stygiana

The true Azorean species with impressive rosettes of thick, leathery, rich green foliage at the ends of low, serpentine, green stems. Yellowy-brown clusters of slightly honey-scented flowers are seen in May/June. A few specialist nurseries sell the hybrid E. x pasteurii as this species, though they aren't that similar. Hardier than E. mellifera. Best in sun.

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Euphorbia stygiana subsp. santamariae (new)

An extremely endangered and very recently introduced rarity that is limited to about 50 individuals in the wild on one Azorean island. Rather different from the straight species, this wants to be a small tree, as it is in the wild, with strong apical dominance and very vigorous growth. Foliage is quite different too, less leathery with a faint bluish bloom.

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Euphorbia x pasteurii 'John Phillips'

A selected clone of this marvellous hybrid spurge, received from and named after a fine and generous plantsman from Wiltshire who was probably the first to grow it in the UK. Some E. x pasteurii can look very like E. mellifera, this does not, with big broad foliage and a very vigorous constitution. Honey scented flowers. Very tough but safest in a sheltered spot.

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Euphorbia x pasteurii 'John Phillips'

A new, robust clone of this marvellous hybrid spurge, received from and named after a fine and generous plantsman from Wiltshire who was probably the first to grow it in the UK. Some E. x pasteurii can look very like E. mellifera: this does not, with big broad foliage and a very vigorous constitution. Honey scented flowers. Very tough but safest in a sheltered spot.

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Euphorbia x pasteurii 'Phrampton Phatty'

Selected from my own garden, this forms a particularly wide spreading, dense, evergreen dome, wider than high, covering the ground efficiently. Classically large foliage, like a E. mellifera on steroids, and large mounds of honey scented yellow-brown flowers in spring. Expect height about 2m and spread 3m after just a few years.

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Euphorbia x pasteurii 'Phrampton Phatty'

A clone growing here in my garden, which has turned out to be quite distinct. It has formed a wide spreading, dense, evergreen dome, wider than high, covering the ground efficiently. E. mellifera gives it the dense uniform head of superb foliage and the other parent E. stygiana gives the broad spreading habit. Expect height about 1.5m and spread 2.5m.

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Euptelea polyandra

An obscure and subtly beautiful small tree from Japan with branches covered in red anthers (i.e. petal-less flowers) in spring, followed by elm-like seeds. Coarsely toothed, handsome, distinct foliage, heart shaped with a long drawn out tip, turns to shades of yellow and red in Autumn. Rarely encountered, but hardy elegant and tolerant.

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Fagus aff. longipetiolata (new)

From Huaping, Guangxi, China, this appears to be this species. One of the finest and most attractive of all beech due to its ovate, fairly taper pointed foliage, though very rarely encountered in cultivation, forming only a medium sized tree in the UK. The leaves turn to very similar shades of russet and gold in autumn. The bark is a classic smooth cold grey.

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Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana (new)

Extremely rare in cultivation, yet fully hardy, these plants of the Mexican Beech are propagated from a tree growing in Holland. Not only rare in cultivation, this is very rare in the wild state also, with only ten small populations known in the mountains of E Mexico. A large tree in the wild, the leathery leaves are attractive with a dentate margin and drawn out tip.

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Fagus longipetiolata

Virtually unknown in Western cultivation, this Chinese species is one of the most attractive beeches judging by plants I've seen in Guizhou, with ovate fairly taper-pointed leaves in comparison to our native. The leaves turn to very similar shades of russet and gold in autumn. The bark is a similar smooth cold grey. Expect a smaller, medium sized tree here.

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Fagus longipetiolata NJM 11.036 (new)

Virtually unknown in Western cultivation, this Chinese species is one of the most attractive beeches judging by plants I've seen in Guizhou, with ovate fairly taper-pointed leaves in comparison to our native. The leaves turn to very similar shades of russet and gold in autumn. The bark is a similar smooth cold grey. Expect a smaller, medium sized tree here.

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Fargesia nitida Jiuzhaigou 1

Collected 1986 from N Sichuan, China. Originally thought to be F. nitida, but now considered a different species by some. Erect growth to about 2.5m with new culms aging to a lovely deep red, and very pretty, tiny leaves arranged in small, downward pointing bunches. Very hardy and tightly clump forming. Enjoys shade though stands full sun too.

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Fargesia nitida Jiuzhaigou 2

Up to 4m high, this is one of the largest forms of this beautiful small leaved species. Similar to Jiuzhaigou 1 in many other respects, but with slightly larger culms that are less tightly packed into the clump, giving a slightly more open effect. Very hardy and unlikely to flower for a very long time.

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Fargesia robusta

A superb, relatively recent introduction, which lives up to its name well. Red-tinted, hairy shoots are seen very early in spring, emerging from a tight, non-running base and growth is vertical and strong, with a dazzling display of bleached white culm sheaths all the way up the culms in midsummer. Foliage is deep glossy green, long and slim. Height 4 or 5m.

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Fargesia robusta 'Red Sheath' ('Wolong')

A very fine and colourful bamboo, with large, glossy leaves for a Fargesia, and upright arching growth to about 4m. The persistent and prolific culm sheaths are copper-red tinted and add greatly to the beauty of this vigorous clump-former, especially in midsummer. Larger leaved and therefore more arching than the standard form. Very hardy.

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Fargesia rufa

Fairly new, this very beautiful clump forming species has great potential in small gardens, either in the ground or in a pot. Culm sheaths and branches tinted with rusty orange-red, and narrow, glossy, rich green foliage on thin, densely set culms all add up to a distinctive, refined look. Up to about 2m, though often a bit smaller, especially in a pot. V.V. nice.

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Fargesia scabrida

This is yet another fabulous species new to cultivation in the West. The colouring on the new shoots on this beauty is quite remarkable, with pale burnt-orange culm sheaths contrasting magnificently with the violet-blue fresh culms. Foliage is elegant glossy-green, long and slim. Non-running but very vigorously makes a clump about 3m high. Superb.

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Fascicularia bicolor subsp. bicolor

Slightly less hardy than its cousin subsp. canaliculata, though this one is more succulent, with thicker textured, narrow, slightly spiny foliage, forming evergreen rosettes that bulk up quite quickly to form patches. Vivid blue flowers surrounded by a strong central zone of scarlet leaf bases, when each individual rosette is good and ready. Best in sun with shelter.

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Fascicularia bicolor subsp. canaliculata

A virtually completely hardy bromeliad, rarely affected by frost here and in cold areas merely needing a very sheltered site. Quite extraordinary in flower when the central leaves of the dark green rosettes of very thin, toothed foliage turn bright scarlet before the fat cluster of sky blue fleshy flowers open. Grow in well drained soil in sun or part shade.

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Fatsia polycarpa Needham form (new)

A superb relatively recent introduction and a vast improvement on F. japonica, with very deeply lobed and dissected, matt, slightly greyish green foliage. The white flowers that come in winter are similar, but open from milk-chocolate brown felt covered inflorescence stalks. A very handsome and striking, medium sized, hardy evergreen foliage plant.

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Ferula communis 'Cretan Giant' (new)

A huge form from Crete to 3m tall with particularly well branched flowering stems and huge mounds of very finely divided, feathery green foliage. Fat rounded umbels of yellow flowers on those great tall stems in summer. Full sun. Summer dormant.

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Ferula communis subsp. glauca NJM 13.001 (new)

A greyer-green variant of this truly impressive giant perennial umbel from the Mediterranean with violet bloomed flower stems, forming big mounds of fine feathery grey-green foliage, and after a few years sending up a 3m stem topped with fat balls of yellow flowers. Full sun to slight shade. Summer dormant and fully hardy.

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Ferulago sylvatica PAB 2875

An unusual member of the Apiaceae collected from woodland in Bulgaria by Paul Barney. Makes a small perennial with a basal rosette of particularly divided, very ferny foliage, giving rise in late spring to airy umbels of bright lemon-yellow flowers on slim stems to 50cm. Sun or semi-shade. Hardy.

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Ficus johannis subsp. afghanistanica 'Silver Lyre'

A recent selection from Oregon of this very unusual hardy deciduous fig from the Near East. The heavily dissected silver-green foliage is particularly handsome and the small dark fruit are sweet and commonly consumed (in Iran at least). This should make a large shrub or small tree in cultivation, very drought tolerant and probably best with some heat from a wall.

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Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'

'Queen of the Prairie' is essentially a taller pink American alternative for our native meadowsweet with, under suitably moist conditions, erect stems up to 2.5m topped by fluffy heads of deep-pink flowers ageing paler from mid to late summer. The foliage is pinnate but with the terminal leaflet palmately lobed - quite handsome! Tolerant of most decent soils if never too dry and very happy in a bog.

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Firmiana simplex

'Chinese Parasol Tree'. Thought to be tender, this fabulously tropical looking tree has grown outside at Kew for years, and in my garden it's BONE hardy - even thru Dec' 2010! Makes a medium sized deciduous tree with outsized maple-like leaves on very stout, green shoots: the bark staying green to the ground for years. Likes warmth in summer.

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Foeniculum vulgare 'Giant Bronze'

A selected form from Piet Oudolf. This comes true from seed and produces plants of a very dark and dusky charcoal bronze. Typical yellow, flat umbels of flower on 1.8m stems. Easy and very hardy in most soils in sun. Very drought tolerant and edible.

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Fuchsia campos-portoi

A low, shrubby little plant with narrow foliage, from a small area of temperate Southern Brazil and rare in cultivation. Makes a small suckering shrub bearing lots of vibrant-pink and royal-purple flowers throughout summer. Apparently hardy to -10c and possibly lower.

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Fuchsia hatschbachii

Not only one of the hardiest of all Fuchsias, but one that has such a great name, that will no doubt inspire many a really poor joke about family cars. A very vigorous bushy species that can grow to 2m in one season after a hard prune, bearing willow-like foliage. Elegant, slim, 'fuchsia coloured' (funnily enough) flowers appear continuously in summer and autumn.

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Fuchsia magellanica 'Lady Bacon'

This distinct form of the species has multicoloured but exceptionally elegant flowers. and narrow, small foliage. making a plant only about 1m high. The pendulous flowers are composed of an unusually long red-pink tube with slender white sepals splaying out around a violet corolla with long red tinted stamen below. Generally hardy in most areas if sited well.

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Fuchsia regia subsp. serrae (new)

A very unusual and newly available Fuchsia from the highlands of temperate SE Brazil. Splendid silvered foliage with red veins and petioles is rather different and attractive. The flowers are rather classic in being red-pink with purple innards. This is a potentially large plant that can climb up through other shrubs in a scandent way. Root hardy to below minus 10c.

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Galega orientalis PAB 6771 (new)

Upright spikes of lovely indigo blue pea flowers in summer over pale green pinnate leaves. Height 1.2m. Sunny position. Spreads. This collection from Bakuriani, Georgia.

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Gaultheria aff. dumicola NJM 10.032 (new)

A collection from Far N. Vietnam making a large shrub to small tree in the dense humid forest, no doubt a bit smaller here, with thickly leathery broad evergreen leaves, rich maroon on emergence. Racemes of small urn shaped white flowers in late spring/early summer. For lime free humus rich soil and some shade.

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Geranium 'Elworthy Eyecatcher'

Impressive, powerful pink flowers over a long summer season. A loose clumper to 50cm. Sun or part shade.

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Geranium 'Patricia'

A superb modern hybrid forming a huge dense mound of magenta pink flowers with black eyes, seen all summer and into autumn. 75cm high by over 1m across. Hardy and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Geranium 'Salome'

Choice hybrid hardy geranium. Lilac, black eyed flowers, with the black feathering through dark purple into the lilac. Flowers through summer. Low, spreading stems from a very compact rootstock. Sun or part shade.

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Geranium 'Sanne'

An excellent new cultivar forming a low wide dense mat of brown-purple flushed diminutive foliage, topped by a display of little white flowers from May to September. Height 20cm, spread > 60cm. Hardy and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Geranium clarkei 'Mount Stewart'

A relatively new Geranium from the garden of the same name in Northern Ireland. Big pale lilac-pink flowers with prominent purple-pink veins over heavily dissected foliage on a plant to 40cm high. Easy.

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Geranium palmatum

A magnificent species forming mighty plants with impressively large vivid green, deeply dissected foliage. Huge heads of magenta-pink flowers in summer. Height to 120cm. Sun or part shade. Requires some protection in very cold areas, but generally pretty hardy. The giant Herb Robert to grow if you aren't mild enough for G. maderense.

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Geranium phaeum var. phaeum 'Langthorn's Blue'

A good blue flowered form of this reliable species. Flowers have a paler centre and rise to 60cm above a healthy mound of green foliage. Tough and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Gevuina avellana

'Chilean Hazel'. Not of course a hazel, but a member of the Protea family. An exceptionally fine foliage plant for a sheltered spot in a southern or western garden. Complex, polished evergreen foliage covers loosely held branches on a large shrub or small tree. White Grevillea flowers in late summer followed by red fruit. Inside are edible nuts. Acid soil.

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Gillenia stipulata

A North American perennial with divided marijuana-esque foliage and upright, slender, red-tinted stems, topped by airy open sprays of white flowers from red calyces in July. Sun or semi shade. 60cm. The Ipecacuanna is used in modern herbalism.

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Ginkgo biloba 'Autumn Gold'

A fine cultivar of this most distinct and truly ancient Chinese tree, selected for its outstanding golden-yellow autumn colour and well branched upright habit, forming a full rounded crown. Very hardy and adaptable to most soils and sites, making a large tree over many decades.

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Ginkgo biloba 'Beijing Gold'

An interesting new form with leaves that emerge primrose-yellow in spring and slowly become darker over the season as they build chlorophyll, before turning a rich yellow in autumn. Like some other yellow leaved plants, this would be best placed in a semi-shaded position to avoid scorch to the new foliage. Slow growing, this is a shrubby form of the species.

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Ginkgo biloba 'Fairmount' (new)

Selected in Philadelphia for its narrow upright columnar form, this slowly makes a medium to large tree with splendid golden yellow autumn colour. A male clone, this doesn't drop smelly fruit. For almost any soil or site, Ginkgos are very tough - they've had to be to survive the last 300 million years!

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Ginkgo biloba 'Saratoga'

An interesting and beautiful form of this most distinct and truly ancient Chinese tree. The leaves are drawn out, deeply divided and semi-pendulous and turn a good clear yellow in autumn. It is also smaller growing making a compact, upright tree for virtually any soil or site. Very hardy, tough and easy.

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Ginkgo biloba 'Tubifolia' (new)

A fairly dwarf form for many years, with the most unusual and ornamental foliage when young; the edges being rolled inward; imagine an ice-cream cornet without the ice-cream. As the tree gets older leaves become flatter and more laciniate (dissected) than the norm. Very good golden yellow autumn colour. Reaches only about 6m after many decades.

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Gladiolus 'Dark Ruby' (new)

A hybrid of the very hardy G. papilio. The hooded, nodding flowers are very dark red with darker interior markings and the foliage is glaucous. Flowering late summer at about 1m. Quite different from the usual top heavy gaudy things. Not too dry in the growing season please. A darker flowered seedling, very similar to 'Ruby'

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Gladiolus 'Ruby'

A hybrid of the very hardy G. papilio. The hooded, nodding flowers are rich red with darker interior markings and the foliage is glaucous. Flowering late summer at about 1m. Quite different from the usual top heavy gaudy things. Not too dry in the growing season please.

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Gladiolus papilio

A hardy gladiolus with unusual slaty-lilac and yellow-green hooded flowers in late summer. Height 120cm. Sounds dull but looks fabulous, a real sultry, unpretentious beauty. Keep well fed for good flowering. Sun.

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Gleditsia caspia NJM 13.019 (new)

This collection from Azerbaijan is one of the most spectacularly and formidably armed of hardy trees, the trunk of older trees being covered in branched woody spines up to 15cm long or more. A small hardy tree for any well drained soil with highly attractive bipinnate foliage. The insignificant flowers are followed by 20cm long pods which turn dark brown.

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Globba radicalis (new)

Dancing Ladies. An apparently fairly hardy ginger from NE India with a twice flowering habit. The first inflorescence arises before the foliage in early summer with the second flowering in late summer, then producing tuberlets. The inflorescences are bizarre and beautiful, not easily described here, composed of palest white-mauve flowers with yellow markings.

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Globularia cordifolia RCB UA-30 (new)

Gathered from the Crimea. A dwarf evergreen mat-forming perennial for a well drained sunny position. The buttons of blue flowers rise to 12cm. Hardy

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Grevillea 'Canberra Gem'

One of the hardiest of the genus, this makes a full medium sized shrub to about 2.5m tall and wide. The bright deep-pink waxy flowers are produced along the stems of aromatic, almost Rosemary-like foliage over a very long period from late winter to late summer. For a well drained neutral to acid soil in sun.

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Grevillea victoriae

Royal grevillea. A most attractive medium sized evergreen shrub from the Snowy mountains of SE Australia. Comparatively large red flowers emerge from rusty-red buds and hang in drooping racemes in summer over a canopy of 10cm long silvery lanceolate leaves. For well drained lime free soil. Proven hardy, even in the West Midlands.

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Grevillea victoriae 'Murray Valley Queen' (new)

A form selected for slightly larger flowers, more prolifically set. Comparatively large pink-red flowers emerge from rusty buds and hang in drooping racemes in summer or winter over a canopy of 10cm long silvery-green lanceolate leaves. A medium sized evergreen shrub for well drained lime free soil. Proven hardy, even in the West Midlands!

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Gymnocladus chinensis

Very new into cultivation in the UK and a particularly interesting introduction. Closely related to the American G. dioicus, the Kentucky Coffee Tree, this has altogether more tropical looking foliage, resembling a species of Albizia. The bipinnate leaves flush purple and retain that colour on the leaflet reverse. Very hardy, this will enjoy warmth in summer.

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Gymnocladus dioica

The 'Kentucky Coffee Tree' is only rarely seen in this country, which is a shame as the huge but very graceful, bi-pinnate leaves are quite a sight. Steadily makes a deciduous tree of small to medium size with foliage pink tinged in spring and turning a good yellow in autumn. Twigs conspicuously palest grey in winter. Very hardy though grows best in warm summer areas.

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Hakea lissosperma

A most unusual plant with a look like no other we can grow in the UK. A tall dense shrub or small tree with linear evergreen needle-like foliage looking more like a conifer, though actually a member of the Protea family from Tasmania and SE Australia. Clusters of attractive white flowers are produced in abundance during April and May. Not for very limy soils.

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Hakonechloa macra

Exceptionally handsome, rich green arching foliage forms rounded mounds 60cm high, composed of elegantly long-tapering blades. Sun or part shade, not too dry. A personal favourite.

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Hakonechloa macra 'Albovariegata' (new)

Heavily striped white and green arching foliage forms rounded mounds 60cm high, composed of elegantly long-tapering blades. Sun or part shade, not too dry. Deciduous.

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Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola'

Low clumps of arching, brilliantly yellow-striped leaves. Deciduous. Height 30cm. Sun or part shade, not too dry.

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Halesia monticola var. vestita

This is the finest form of Snowdrop Tree from S.E. USA. A very pretty small spreading tree when seen in May with its naked branches strung with countless clusters of pendulous, white, Snowdrop-like flowers before the leaves emerge. Winged green fruits follow. Requires lime free soil, not too dry, in sun or semi-shade.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Andre' (new)

A new clone, named by the National Collection holder Chris Lane for the Dutchman that raised it. The broad petalled flowers are clear sulphur yellow and usually appear in Jan-Feb. For any reasonable soil.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Aphrodite'

A very large flowered cultivar with slightly fragrant deep-orange flowers borne en-masse in the depths of winter on spreading branches. Autumn colour yellow. For any reasonable soil.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Arnold Promise'

One of the very first clones of this hybrid Witch Hazel ever raised and still highly regarded. A vigorous cultivar making a large wide spreading bush, the branches profusely covered in bright yellow flowers towards the end of winter. Any reasonable soil. Award of Garden Merit.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Aurora' (new)

A seedling of 'Vesna' with possibly 'Pallida' as the other parent, raised in Holland. Very large, strongly fragrant, bronze-yellow flowers in mid-winter, the petals red at their bases shading to yellow at their tips. Leaves turn to orange-yellow or red in autumn. Award of Garden Merit.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Feuerzauber' ('Magic Fire')

A fine old cultivar making a vigorous shrub with strong ascending branches. Leaves are large and rounded and the medium to large flowers are bright coppery-orange, suffused red. For any well drained good soil, but not good on thin chalk.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Nina'

A Danish witch hazel selection with long, clear yellow petals to the flowers, seen in mid to late winter, on a vigorous rounded shrub to 4m tall and of a similar width. Autumn colour is a deep butter yellow.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Orange Peel'

A witch hazel with clear orange sweetly scented large flowers on an shrub to 3.5m high and round, though upright when young. The foliage is orbicular, turning yellow orange and red in autumn and the flowers, as is often the case, are produced in mid to late winter.

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Hamamelis x intermedia 'Rubin'

Dark red flowers on the bare branches in the depths of winter, best seen against a lighter backdrop. Close to H. japonica in foliage and habit, making a large spreading shrub. For any reasonable soil.

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Hedychium 'Helen Dillon' (forrestii of hort.)

One of the hardiest gingers and a superb foliage plant, this is what goes around as H. forrestii in cultivation, but is definitely not that species. Exotic, orchid-like white flowers with orange stamen make up a loose inflorescence in late summer/autumn on very leafy pseudostems to 1.8m. Rich soil in sun or part shade. Bone hardy here, even without mulch through 2010!

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Hedychium 'Khang Khui Tall Boy' (new)

Found in the wilds of Eastern Manipur at 1600m asl, at the epicentre of Hedychium diversity, this had pseudo-stems to 2.5m tall. Unseen in flower as yet.

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Hedychium coccineum 'Hungphung Stripe' (new)

From Manipur, NE India, this new form has striking leaves up to 60cm long with a pale white green stripe along the midrib, held in a particularly distichous 'ladder fashion'; at right angles up the pseudostems. Makes plants to about 2m high. So new it has yet to flower here.

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Hedychium coccineum 'Shillong Ghost'

Recently found on Shillong Peak, N.E. India, this hardy and reliable ginger lily produces large spikes of vivid red-orange flowers over blue-green foliage in late summer. This flowers outside even in very cool, dull summers. Height 1.5m

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Hedychium densiflorum 'Assam Orange'

This is one of the hardiest of all ginger lilies. Dense spikes of small burnt orange flowers on leafy stems to about 1.2m in late summer. Sun or part shade in a sheltered position, mulch in winter. Originally discovered by Frank Kingdon Ward in 1938. Mulch over in winter if you're worried about cold.

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Hedychium densiflorum 'Sorung'

A very distinct form of the species, found by the late great Edward Needham in Nepal. Larger than usual flowers, in the style of the cultivar 'Stephen', are a most unusual pale pinkish-orange. Tough, hardy and easy in the garden.

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Hedychium densiflorum 'Stephen'

A tough Ginger lily suited to outdoor culture. Exotic foliage and dense spikes of soft yellow, delicately scented flowers, with contrasting deep-orange anthers, in late summer atop 1.2m stems. Sun or part shade. Flower spike larger than most other forms of H. densiflorum. Tough, hardy and easy in the garden.

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Hedychium densiflorum MW ex Salween

A distinct Michael Wickendon collection from the Salween Valley in NW Yunnan. A very hardy ginger lily for permanent garden planting, showing lush foliage to about 1m and slim dense spikes of soft pinkish-orange flowers in late summer/autumn.

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Hedychium ellipticum PAB 7361 (new)

A splendid, highly attractive and distinct species with a great boss of cream flowers with long extending orange stamen, radiating fully around the inflorescence, borne in late summer on leafy stems to 1.2m. Foliage is broad; the bases of which mark the stems with red. Possible outside in mild areas, but an excellent pot plant. Rich soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Hedychium greenei

One of the finest Ginger lilies for foliage. 1.2m stems are maroon tinted, with leaves green above and a sumptuous deep maroon on the reverse. Shortish heads of fairly large and flamboyant flowers are seen late in the season and for this reason it's best to keep it as a pot plant, though it's really rather hardy in the ground if mulched over for winter.

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Hedychium spicatum - from Gongshan

A Michael Wickendon collection from near Gongshan in NW Yunnan. This species has a wide distribution and is variable with it. This collection has dense inflorescences with a fair amount of yellow in the otherwise generally cream flowers. A very hardy ginger lily for permanent garden planting, showing lush foliage to about 1m and flowers in late summer/autumn.

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Hedychium spicatum - from Tibet

A recent wild find of one of the hardiest and most reliable of all Ginger lilies, In this distinct form the flowers are in a dense head and are slightly yellow tinted at maturity in late summer. Attractive bright red seeds cling to orange seed capsules. Grow in rich soil in a warm sheltered site in sun or semi-shade. Height 1m. The same distinct form as 'from Gongshan', not far to the south.

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Hedychium villosum var. tenuiflorum (new)

A recent collection from the far north of its range in Arunachal Pradesh, NE India, this is one of the very finest of Ginger lilies, being short, highly floriferous, flowering fairly early in the ginger season and with deep green glossy foliage and dark-red tinted pseudostems. The flowers are a mix of white spidery petals that age primrose yellow and deep-red long extended stamen, all from red tinted bracts.

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Hedychium wardii

A relatively new introduction from NW Yunnan, China which has settled in very well to cultivation. Most distinct from others in cultivation, this species produces 15cm tall cone-like inflorescences from August onward, from which emerge clusters of large scented, clear yellow, butterfly-like flowers with very short filaments. Trials proved this rather hardy through winter 2010.

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Hedychium x moorei 'Tara'

A very fine Ginger Lily selected by Tony Schilling, suited to outdoor cultivation. Large, exotic, bright orange flower spikes in late summer, over typically lush, glaucous-green foliage. To 1.5m high. Sun or part shade in rich soil. This has been utterly hardy with me for years, without a winter mulch, even through Nov/Dec 2010!

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Hedychium yunnanense

One of the hardiest, this species is closely related to H. spicatum. A compact plant reaching 80cm with broad foliage to 10cm wide, and spidery white flowers in summer with long, exserted orange-red stamen: earlier in the season than most. The true species and a tough garden plant.

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Helianthus 'Bitter Chocolate'

Similar to H. salicifolius but with broader foliage and stems to only 2m, topped with clusters of larger, bright yellow, very dark centred, deliciously scented starry flowers earlier in the season in Aug-Sept. A hardy and easy clumper.

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Helianthus salicifolius

Grown mainly for its truly marvellous stems which usually snake about a bit over the season with incredibly elegant hanging curtains of long, fine, narrow green foliage. They reach 2.5m long and end in clusters of bright yellow, very dark centred and deliciously scented starry flowers in late autumn. Hardy and easy.

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Helwingia chinensis - broad leaf form

One of only 3 members of the Helwingiaceae, this Chinese species is rather similar to H. himalaica though larger. A vigorous evergreen shrub to about 2m or more with rather attractive, glossy foliage, emerging coppery-red and edged with small teeth. Green purple flowers in the centre of the leaf (!) and black fruit. Hardy.

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Helwingia chinensis - Narrow leaf form

One of only 3 members of the Helwingiaceae, this Chinese species is rather similar to H. himalaica. Forming a vigorous evergreen shrub to about 2m or more with rather attractive, glossy, willow like foliage, emerging coppery-red and edged with small teeth. Green purple flowers open in the centre of the leaf (!) in summer, followed by black fruit. Hardy.

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Heptacodium miconioides

The 'Seven Son Flower of Zhejiang'. Only introduced from China in 1981 this vigorous, easy, very hardy and attractive large shrub has proved its worth. The foliage has 3 prominent veins and each leaf curls under the branch creating a tube effect. Clusters of scented white starry flowers are borne in late summer, the calyx turning red if it's warm.

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Hesperoyucca whipplei NJM 08.036

I collected the seed for these in the mountains above Los Angeles from non suckering, monster specimens. Huge rosettes of perfectly radiating, pale blue, slim leaves eventually flower and when they do they are a sight for sore eyes. Thousands of scented white flowers, edged purple, on a huge scape up to 4m high. The Yanks call it 'Our Lords Candle'. HALLELUJAH!

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Hesperoyucca whipplei subsp. whipplei NJM 11.001

I collected the seed for these in the mountains above Los Angeles from non suckering, monster specimens. Huge rosettes of perfectly radiating, pale blue, slim leaves eventually flower and when they do they are a sight for sore eyes. Thousands of scented white flowers, edged purple, on a huge scape up to 4m high. The Yanks call it 'Our Lords Candle'. HALLELUJAH!

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Heuchera americana 'Harry Hay'

Scarce, super-vigorous variety with large foliage expanding dark red then turning greener above with red beneath. Very bold clumps of foliage and flower stems to a whopping 1m with cream flowers in early summer. Sun or part shade. This is from the late legendary plantsman himself. Not your average Heuchera. Even I like it.

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Hibiscus sino-syriacus 'Lilac Queen'

Deserving of far wider planting, this is closely related to the common hardy Hibiscus but far superior with much larger sage-green foliage, more vigorous growth and, in this form, beautiful lilac flushed flowers with garnet-red bases. These are also larger than H. syriacus, and with thicker petals. Easy in a sunny position in well drained soil.

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Hibiscus sinosyriacus 'Ruby Glow'

A very rarely seen relative of the hardy Hibiscus. This species is from China and has much wider sage-green leaves on a more vigorous, spreading bush, with flowers of a more substantial nature. In this form the white petals have a red base. Full sun in any reasonable soil. This is virtually unknown and should, along with the other clones, be more widely planted.

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Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis LSE 15724 (new)

Very different from the straight species, this rarity from China forms a round headed small tree with a thick trunk and semi-weeping, arching branches. The slightly broader foliage is green above and grey beneath. Very tough and easy, eventually reaching up to about 8m tall with a trunk up to 60cm thick.

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Hoheria 'Glory of Amlwch'

A magnificent large, semi-evergreen shrub absolutely smothered in scented white, cherry-blossom like flowers crowded on the stems in late July, early Aug, an otherwise fairly dull time in the garden. Enjoys sun and a little shelter in cold areas. In my experience very good in poor limy soil.

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Hoheria angustifolia

From New Zealand comes this, the smallest leaved member of Hoheria. Makes a tall slim evergreen shrub or small tree with diminutive leaves and masses of starry little white flowers in July/August. Easy in most soils, even very thin ones, and very vigorous too. This is usually a tangle of wiry stems in its early years but then matures and grows up, as it were.

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Hoheria sexstylosa 'Stardust'

A more upright, very floriferous form of the species selected by Roy Lancaster. A large vigorous, evergreen shrub smothered in starry white flowers in Jul/Aug. Best with some shelter in cold areas. In flower when most things aren't.

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Hoheria x lanceolata Clone 1

H. angustifolia x sexstylosa. A superb, vigorous, upright, perfectly hardy, evergreen large shrub or small tree. The dark green foliage is slim, willowy and lightly lobed on slightly pendulous outer branches, smothered in early August with clouds of fragrant, starry white flowers. This plant has grown into a very handsome specimen with me on poor limestone soil. A favourite.

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Holboellia coriacea

Handsome and vigorous, this twining evergreen climber from the Himalaya bears compound palmate leaves with up to 7 leaflets with distinct stalks, and deliciously fragrant flowers in March, the males being purplish, the females greenish-white. Best on a warm wall where the sausage shaped, fleshy, purple, edible fruit can form if flowers are hand pollinated.

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Holboellia latifolia var. angustifolia (new)

A fine and distinct form of this twining evergreen climber from the Himalaya with up to seven very narrow leaflets up to 15cm long and 2cm wide. Fragrant bronzy-pink flowers with recurved sepals in March; males greenish-yellow in the throat. For a wall fence or tree, where the sausage shaped, fleshy, purplish, edible fruit can form if pollinated by another clone.

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Hosta 'Empress Wu'

A truly vast hybrid, reaching over a metre tall in leaf alone and producing huge, broad, deeply veined, thick textured, mollusc resistant grey-green leaves, each up to 45cm across. Pale lavender flowers reach a little higher than the foliage in Jun/Jul. For semi-shade in nice humusy soil.

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Hosta yingeri

These are quite possibly a polyploid form of this Korean species, being slightly larger in all its parts than other youngsters it was selected from. A handsome species with glossy, light-green, fairly thick textured foliage and star-shaped lilac-purple flowers spread evenly around the stems, seen in late July and August. Height 40cm. Semi-shade.

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Hovenia dulcis NJM 11.003

The Japanese Raisin Tree is actually native to China and the Himalaya, but cultivated elsewhere for the edible branches of the inflorescences. Yes indeed, it's not the fruit you want to eat with this one, but the fleshy reddish twigs they perch on! We found this growing in a village in Guizhou, China where it made a small to medium sized deciduous hardy tree.

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Hydrangea 'Dharuma' (new)

Thought to be a hybrid between H. paniculata and H. heteromalla, this is apparent in the flower heads which visually sit between the two, being broad relatively flattened complex inflorescences with white ray flowers liberally interspersed between the fertile florets; the whole soon turning pink. A rounded fairly small plant to only 1.5m tall. Tough and tolerant.

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Hydrangea 'Garden House Glory'

A new hybrid, first released here. A cross between H. macrophylla and H. serrata, this makes a small shrub to about 1.3m, wider than tall. Foliage emerges red tinted and gives excellent autumn colour. The flowers are a glowing red and of lacecap form. Happy in sun or semi-shade and very hardy.

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Hydrangea 'Glyn Church'

A fine new form, making a small to medium sized shrub bearing mopheads composed of large white florets with frilly edges, which turn progressively more red stained as the season progresses.

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Hydrangea 'Mirai'

Although appearing to be an H. macrophylla, this is actually a hybrid with H. serrata. Makes a low bushy plant to about 1m high, bearing densely packed mopheads composed of white florets with conspicuous red margins. Foliage emerges heavily stained claret-red. Even attractive in bud. The H. serrata parent is 'Kiyosumi'. Enjoys a half shaded position.

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Hydrangea 'Preziosa'

A compact and rounded bush of small to medium size with small mopheads in a lovely shade of red, even on acid soils. Immature sepals are cream with pink edges and mature to bright red. Excellent, distinct and suited to both ground or container cultivation.

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Hydrangea 'Sandra'

Foliage emerges with deep red tints and the outer florets of the otherwise white lacecap flowers are rimmed with red. Makes a rounded shrub to about 1.5m. Although listed as a H. macrophylla, this obviously has some H. serrata 'Kiyosumi' blood.

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Hydrangea angustipetala (new)

A distinct, rarely seen or grown species from the Far East, making a deciduous shrub to 1.5m tall with very slim, willow-like, dark-green, toothed leaves, and lacecaps with white outer florets surrounding soft yellow fertile florets, the outer florets turning yellower as they age. For a semi-shaded position in any fairly reasonable soil; best with a humusy mulch.

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Hydrangea angustipetala 'Golden Crane' (new)

A selected form of this distinct species from the Far East, making a deciduous shrub 1 to 1.5m tall with very slim, willow-like, dark-green, toothed leaves. Fragrant lacecaps with white outer florets surrounding soft yellow fertile florets, the outer florets turning yellower as they age, from spring onwards. For a semi-shaded position in any fairly reasonable soil.

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Hydrangea angustipetala f. macrosepala (new)

A distinct, rarely seen or grown species from the Far East, making a deciduous shrub to 1.5m tall with very slim, willow-like, dark-green, toothed leaves. In this form lacecaps with fewer, particularly large, white, frilly edged outer florets surround soft yellow fertile florets. For a semi-shaded position in any fairly reasonable soil; best with a humusy mulch.

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Hydrangea arborescens 'Annabelle'

Similar to H. arborescens 'Grandiflora', differing in the slightly smaller florets making up the bigger globular heads of creamy-white flowers, borne from July to September. Prune hard in spring for gigantic heads of flower. A very hardy deciduous shrub reaching about 1.5m, for any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade. Drought tolerant.

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Hydrangea arborescens 'Eco Pink Puff'

A most unusual new form from the USA; the flattened-rounded flower heads are composed entirely of densely set, small fertile florets, deep pink in bud, opening to fuzzy pale pink powder puffs. A medium sized very hardy deciduous shrub for sun or semi-shade, flowering July to Sept.

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Hydrangea arborescens 'Emerald Lace'

A new form, bringing a rather different foliage texture to the species, having all leaves deeply dissected. Otherwise this is as one would find plants in their wild state, with neat white lacecap heads of flower in late summer. Adds a considerably extended season of interest to this species. Reaches about 1.5m high, for sun or semi-shade and very hardy.

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Hydrangea arborescens ssp discolor 'Sterilis'

A rare form of this very tough, hardy, drought tolerant N. American shrub, with sterile heads of creamy-white florets July to September on a bush to about 1.5m high. The flower heads are smaller and more restrained than 'Annabelle' and 'Grandiflora', and I think nicer for it.

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Hydrangea arborescens ssp radiata

An excellent but rarely seen hardy, upright shrub to about 1.8m. Broad heads of creamy white, sweetly scented flowers, surrounded by a ring of sterile florets, produced in July. Leaves strikingly white on their under-surfaces, particularly noticeable with a gust of wind. Much hardier and more tolerant than H. macrophylla forms.

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Hydrangea arborescens subsp. radiata 'Samantha'

A new form, combining bright white undersides to the leaves, typical of the subspecies radiata, with fully sterile cream-white flower heads, like subspecies discolor 'Sterilis'. The inflorescences are smaller than 'Annabelle' and so avoid the flopping sometimes associated with that cultivar. A hardy, tough, medium sized deciduous shrub for sun or semi-shade.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Bellevue'

A magnificent new, triploid, giant, French form, from the garden of the same name. A cross between subsp. sargentiana and 'Macrophylla', this looks like the former, but with the intensity of flower colour of the latter and with bigger inflorescences than either. This enjoys a little shade, where it will reach up to a magnificent 4m in ideal conditions. Awesome.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Gongshan'

This relatively recent collection of the subsp. strigosa from the wild has a wonderful and distinctive deep-red reverse to the typically impressive large hairy foliage, which shows through a to quite some extent above. Flowers are wide lacecaps of lilac fertile flowers surrounded by soft pink ray florets in late summer. Generally hardy in most winters, making a large deciduous shrub for semi-shade.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Koki' (new)

A splendid new intro from Japan, with deep purple-red new foliage, expanding to a deep dusky purple-red-green above and red below. Leaves are fairly broad. Large lacecaps of purplish-pink fertile flowers surrounded by pale-pink ray florets. Proven hardy in Europe, with a slightly deeper colour in leaf than 'Gongshan'.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Macrophylla'

One of the most magnificent Hydrangeas, becoming quite a large shrub over time with large roughly hairy leaves and huge domed lacecap heads of porcelain blue flowers surrounded by a ring of pure white sterile florets in July. This colour will not be affected by soil alkalinity. To about 2m x 2m with me in 10 yrs. Absolutely gorgeous.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Peter Chappell'

A very rare pure white compact form, named after that bloke from Hampshire. Lovely wide lacecaps in summer on a medium sized deciduous shrub, with large-ish hairy leaves. Any reasonable soil.

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Hydrangea aspera 'Sam Macdonald'

A selection of villosa with lacecaps of lilac-blue with a certain wash of pink tinge and the usual softly hairy leaves. Will make a medium sized deciduous shrub. Flower colour will stay the same on acid or alkaline soils. Any reasonable soil, but at its best with a semi-shaded or reasonably sheltered site. Hardy, superb.

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Hydrangea aspera Kawakamii group

A very lovely form of the species from the mountain forests of Taiwan. Broad bold softly hairy leaves with purple-pink petioles and pale veins, topped by large flattened multi-tiered lacecap heads of deep violet, with white sterile florets, borne late during autumn. Flower colour is always the same. Makes a large spreading deciduous shrub enjoying semi-shade.

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Hydrangea aspera Kawakamii group x involucrata

This has H. involucrata influence in the flowers, but attains a larger size than that species and is slightly longer flowering. Raised in Devon by Mark Fillan it forms a medium sized shrub bearing handsome lacecap flowers in late summer. Sterile florets are pure white, surrounding lavender-pink fertile flowers, with the occasional sterile floret toward the centre.

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Hydrangea aspera subsp. sargentiana 'La Fosse'

A distinct form of sargentiana from the French arboretum 'La Fosse', in the Loire Valley. The huge leaves are more rounded in form, with an even tougher texture. The overall shape of the plant is more bushy, reaching 2m high. The big blue and white lacecaps are seen, as usual, in July/August. For a bright but fairly wind sheltered site. Hardy.

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Hydrangea aspera subsp. strigosa 'Sapa'

Collected near Sapa, N. Vietnam, this is a relatively narrow leaved form of the species, the stems and leaves covered in fine and sparse strigose hairs and the lacecap flowers with lilac blue fertile flowers surrounded by white sterile florets. Makes a medium sized shrub, best with some shelter. The flowers remain the same colour on acid or alkaline soils.

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Hydrangea aspera subsp. villosa

One of the finest Hydrangeas, making a spreading medium sized shrub with softly hairy leaves and stems. Large, lilac-blue lacecap flowers with paler sterile florets borne in August, whether on acid or alkaline soil. Very hardy, but can lose the first flush of leaves to late frost, though the flowers are never affected by this.

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Hydrangea chinensis 'Big White' (new)

A Maurice Foster selection of this otherwise neglected species, bearing a mass of large lacecaps of creamy small fertile flowers surrounded by large, serrated, pure white outer florets in summer. A medium sized hardy shrub to about 2m, best in semi-shade, not too dry.

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Hydrangea chinensis NJM 11.090 (new)

A collection from Guizhou, SW China, at 1600m asl. This was a rounded deciduous shrub to 2.5m tall, bearing lacecaps of creamy small fertile flowers surrounded by large, serrated, pure white outer florets in summer. Best in semi-shade, not too dry.

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Hydrangea heteromalla 'Nepal Beauty'

Raised from wild collected Nepalese seed, this form has large foliage with conspicuous red margins and petioles. Airy large white flat lacecap flowers from July to September. Makes a large, tough, deciduous shrub to about 2.5m in 10 years, suitable for sun or semi-shade.

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Hydrangea heteromalla f. xanthoneura NJM 11.009

A new collection of this mighty Hydrangea from Guizhou, China, Where it made a sizable shrub to at least 2.5m high on the exposed peak of Leigongshan. Big creamy lacecaps are seen by the dozen in summer over narrowly ovate foliage, pale beneath and with red petioles Hardy and tolerant of exposure and drought.

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Hydrangea involucrata 'Mihara-kokonoe'

A new form from Japan, found on the island of Oshima. This has almost indescribable, highly complex, irregularly globose flower heads composed of fertile and sterile florets. It's mainly the sterile florets you see as they emerge on long stalks, stacking up, one after the other, opening white, then turning pale green. A vigorous plant, this can reach 1.8m. Spectacular!

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Hydrangea involucrata 'Yohraku tama'

A new Japanese cultivar making a shrub 1.5 to 1.8m high with large, complex, rounded heads of flower, up to 25cm across, composed of white to mauve double sterile florets and blue fertile flowers - neither a mophead or a lacecap. Best in semi-shade and any reasonably humus enriched soil.

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Hydrangea involucrata var. izuensis 'Oshima' (new)

Collected on the Japanese island of the same name, this represents a large growing form of the species, potentially reaching 4m tall under ideal, i.e. humid and semi-shaded conditions. The foliage is slightly thicker and hairier and the lacecap heads of flower are produced late in the season in August and September, being lavender blue with white ray florets.

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Hydrangea longipes 'Trelissick' (new)

A very rarely seen but hardy species making a large spreading shrub to 2.5m tall and more across, the lax branches sweeping the ground. Early flowering, in June, with large lacecap heads of creamy white flowers, the ray florets being up to 5cm across in this cultivar. Distinctive rough, papery foliage up to 22cm long has a petiole of almost the same length.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Ayesha'

Totally distinct amongst the mophead Hydrangeas, very floriferous, with large, rather flattened, dense heads of thick textured, small, cup shaped florets looking a bit like Lilac flowers. They are pale pink or pale blue and slightly scented. Makes a medium sized shrub.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Bachstelze'

A white lacecap, one of the famous Teller series from Switzerland, with flat heads of greenish-pink fertile flowers, surrounded by slightly cupped, pure white sterile florets. A relation of 'Libelle', with similar flowers. Compact and vigorous to about 1.5m, this produces a second flowering, late in the season.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Hopaline'

Flattened domes of many sterile florets start creamy pink or pale opal-blue, depending on soil, then turn to shades of green and red as the heads age. A compact shrub to about 1m, best out of midday sun to avoid flower scorch.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Lanarth White'

A very highly regarded white lacecap of Cornish origin, bearing irregular heads of white sterile flowers with a central zone of blue or pink. A compact medium sized shrub, excellent in exposure to sun or sea.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Madame Emile Mouillère'

The classic white mophead, still regarded as probably the best white after a hundred years. A vigorous shrub to about 1.8m, it is best planted on a north wall or in semi-shade as the flowers can scorch in too much sun. Repeat flowering from July/August onwards.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Merveille Sanguine'

A stunning, distinct and much sought after cultivar. A mophead with intense, deep red florets turning a deliciously rich deep-maroon, or the most intense royal purple on very acid soils, over thick textured, deep-maroon tinged foliage, darkening as the season progresses. Best in sun, as long as it doesn't get excessively dry. Makes a medium sized bush.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Rotschwanz'

One of the Teller series, this is an exceptional, rare and highly desirable form, making a medium sized bush with lacecap flowers composed of large, deep red sterile florets with each section curled when mature so as to form a cross, surrounding pink fertile flowers. Leaves turn deep red in autumn. If soil is very acid lacecaps will be a deep, rich purple.

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Hydrangea macrophylla 'Soeur Thérèse'

A plant very similar to 'Madame Emile Mouillère', but with the florets even whiter, in a large, slightly laxer and slightly less congested mophead. Best with some light shade to avoid scorching the flowers. Makes a medium size shrub.

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Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. stylosa MF 942115 (new)

Undeservedly very rarely encountered, this was found at 2400m, Nushan, W. Yunnan. A deciduous shrub to 1.5m in height with relatively small, slim foliage, covered in a mass of splendid, strikingly bi-coloured lacecaps in July; the central fertile flowers being a vibrant mid-blue, surrounded by frilly-edged, pure white ray florets. Pink and white in alkaline soil..

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Dart's Little Dot'

A most dwarf form of the species, making a rounded little shrub to about 1m high. Open flower panicles, with an even distribution of sterile and fertile florets, start white and turn pink, being produced over a long period from July to late September. No need to prune this one.

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Limelight'

Huge sterile heads of flower like the old form 'Grandiflora' but the florets are a most lovely soft green-cream turning to creamy-white and then with pink tones as the season progresses. A well branched shrub to about 2.5m, or smaller if you prune hard in spring, whereby it will produce even bigger inflorescences. Easy, hardy, tough, flowering in late summer.

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Phantom'

This cultivar has the largest flowerheads of all the paniculatas. Starting creamy-white in late summer, the huge conical panicles, made up mainly of sterile florets, change to soft pink as the season progresses. Absolutely huge heads could be obtained by hard pruning in spring. Easy, hardy, tolerant.

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Pink Diamond'

A spectacular form of this easy undemanding species in which the large flowerheads turn from white to rich pink from late summer. The sterile and fertile florets are equally dispersed on the profuse inflorescences, which can be very large on hard pruned specimens. Left to grow naturally, this will make a large shrub. Easy and hardy in most sites and soils.

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Pinky Winky' (new)

One of the very finest of all cultivars, with an AGM after the RHS trial. Very large and full inflorescences up to 30cm long are composed of a large number of ray florets that emerge white and quickly change to a deep pink, as the upper florets are still emerging white. Heads are held on strong upright stems with no flopping. Hard prune or leave to grow to 2.5m

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Hydrangea paniculata 'Unique'

An aptly named form of this medium to large oriental shrub, with very large, somewhat rounded, conical flower heads, consisting of a great number of sterile florets, opening white in July and turning pinker as the season progresses. Very tough and tolerant, useful where other Hydrangeas won't grow. Hard prune in spring for huge flowers on strong shoots.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Alice'

A relatively new form of the species, growing larger than the norm and with larger inflorescences. The typically deeply lobed leaves give superb autumn colour, and the very large conical panicles of white flowers, up to 35cm long, turn pink with age. Altogether a giant form it would seem. Easy and tough.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Burgundy'

This new form of the Oak leaved Hydrangea has been selected for its exceptional autumn colour, turning a deep, rich red and lasting well. Typical conical panicles of white flowers are large in this form turning pink as they age. An easy and hardy medium sized deciduous shrub.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Ice Crystal'

A new form of the Oak leaf hydrangea from the USA with attractive, more deeply lobed than typical foliage and a very long flowering period, from early summer to the first frosts. Flowers are white, of typical conical form. Makes a tough medium sized shrub up to about 1.8m, for sun or semi-shade.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Pee Wee'

A dwarf, compact form of this excellent species, wider than tall, with mainly sterile, conical, creamy-white flower heads borne in late summer. Excellent red-purple autumn colour. Easy in most soils in sun or semi-shade.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Snow Flake'

A spectacular form of the Oak Leaf Hydrangea with long conical heads of multiple 'doubled' sterile florets, white, turning pinker as they age, over striking foliage, young leaves bright green, older ones dark green turning deep red. Good in full sun or semi-shade on any reasonable soil, acid or alkaline.

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Hydrangea quercifolia 'Snow Queen'

A refined form of the species, the conical flower heads with extra sterile florets lying flat against the head, pure white, turning cream to pink, and weighing the branches down with their substance. Lovely American Red Oak-like foliage turns to shades of red-purple in autumn and falls late. Hardy and tolerant in sun or semi-shade on acid or alkaline soil.

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Hydrangea seemannii

An evergreen climbing Hydrangea from Mexico with long glossy green leaves and complex heads of white fertile flowers surrounded by sterile florets, like a multi-storey lacecap, borne in summer. The flower buds are enclosed by conspicuous bracts. Climbs by aerial roots like the common climbing Hydrangea, grows well in shade but flowers best in sun.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Beni-Gaku'

Lacecap flowers with lilac-blue fertile centres (pink on alkaline soils) surrounded by initially white ray florets that spot and blotch with deep crimson and become ever redder as they age, especially if not over-shaded. An old Japanese cultivar reaching 1.3m tall, for semi-shade.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Cap Sizun'

A new variety from Brittany, this has lacecap heads in clear light blue or pink, the sterile florets having particularly serrated edges. Foliage turns to rich maroon tones later in the season. For semi-shade. Fairly drought tolerant.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Fuji-no-taki'

A recently introduced Japanese form with pure white lacecaps, composed of a relatively inconspicuous central fertile zone, surrounded by full, double, sterile florets; the upper sepals much smaller than the lower, making little white posies. An elegant cultivar, reaching about 1m high, for semi-shade where it will be fairly drought tolerant.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Grayswood'

This very showy plant is large for a serrata reaching about 2m eventually. Flowering starts at the beginning of August and shows colour into October. Lacecap heads have fertile flowers in pink or blue, surrounded by a ring of white sterile florets that soon start to turn brilliant red from the tips, then reverse and turn rich crimson. Elegant, slim foliage.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Hallasan'

Found in the Hallasan National Park, S. Korea by the de Belders, this is a relatively small form of the species, growing to about 80cm, though wider than high. A sister seedling to 'Spreading Beauty', this has lacecaps of mauvey-blue or pink and excellent autumn colour of orange and red. For semi-shade, where it will be fairly drought tolerant.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Kurenai'

An exquisite Japanese cultivar with perfectly formed lacecaps of well spaced sterile florets, with usually only three sepals each. These sterile florets start white and turn through pink-red to intense crimson, contrasting completely with the cream inner fertile florets. As if this wasn't good enough, the foliage gains maroon tinting as it matures. A shrub to 1m.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Kuro-hime'

A free flowering small shrub bred by Yamamoto in Japan, this form has black upper stems and light green foliage. Lacecaps are mid sized, to about 10cm across, the outer sterile florets mauve blue or pink, depending on soil, surrounding fairly large violet or pink sterile florets. For semi-shade, where it will be fairly drought tolerant.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Niji'

A Japanese selection reaching about 1m high and at its best on slightly acid soil where the lacecap flowers will have a blue central fertile zone and the outer sterile florets will be blue in their centres, grading to pink around the edge of each sepal. On very acid soils the flowers become a pure light blue, and of course on alkaline they are light pink. For semi-shade.

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Hydrangea serrata 'O-amacha'

An old Japanese form, grown around Buddhist temples and private gardens primarily for the foliage, which is used for tea. The flowers are lacecaps of blue or pink fertile florets, depending on your soil, surrounded by sterile florets which emerge white and speckle and stain ever more pink-red as they age. A small shrub to about 1.3m, for semi-shade.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Odoriko amacha'

A fairly large form to about 1.5m. The lacecap flowers are on the larger side with a striking contrast between the central rich violet fertile florets and the outer pure white sterile florets. Flowers will be pink and white on alkaline soils. Best in semi-shade. Leaves large, so possibly a hybrid with H. macrophylla.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Sekka'

A very unusual form. Relatively diffuse lacecap flowers can be a vivid blue on acid soils, but whether on acid or alkaline the florets will become ever more mottled with red as the season progresses. This applies to the foliage as well, which stains a rich maroon as it ages. A small shrub for semi-shade.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Suzuka-yama-yama'

New to me, with very little info so far, this rarity from Japan makes a medium sized shrub with lacecaps of blue or pink, depending on soil; the sterile florets are small giving a dainty effect. For semi-shade.

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Hydrangea serrata 'Tiara'

A relatively new English form of this small shrub, with beautiful, delicate lacecaps mauve-pink, surrounded by soft blue or pale pink sterile florets. Foliage turns plummy-crimson in good light through the summer and bright crimson in autumn. One of the loveliest of all Hydrangeas.

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Hylomecon japonica

A Far Eastern woodlander with clear yellow poppies over pretty light green compound foliage in early summer. Height 30cm. Partial shade, humus rich soil.

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Hypericum henryi subsp. hancockii NJM 10.092

A particularly graceful, airy species we found half way up Tay Con Linh mountain in N. Vietnam, very close to the Chinese border. Dainty flowers in a soft shade of light yellow and small narrow leaves, all on a shrub up to 2m high in the wild, with arching narrow stems. I liked it. It's nothing like your average Tesco car park filler. Hardy with me so far.

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Hypericum revolutum PAB 3867

A very rare and distinct species, collected from very high in the Simien Mountains, Ethiopia. A small tree in the wild, but here a medium to large shrub with the tiniest slimmest leaves on wiry shoots. Persistent flowers are a golden-yellow to orange-yellow, flushed red on the reverse, and borne from red tinted buds in summer. Hardy in milder gardens or if sheltered.

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Hypericum sp. nova 'Fancy Pants'

A exceptional new species, found on Fan Si Pan Mountain and due to receive a formal description soon. In the meantime we can enjoy it in our gardens as a first rate plant. Related to H. hookerianum with flowers orange-yellow in bud, opening a rich, egg-yolk yellow with a very cup shaped form. Broad leaves are heavily stained purple on the underside of new growth.

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Hypericum uralum KR 10691

A collection of this pretty, dainty flowered species from the Himalayan State of Arunachal Pradesh, far NE India. A hardy semi-evergreen small growing species with slim, small foliage and pretty, golden-yellow little flowers 2.5cm across borne on arching shoots in Aug and Sept. reaching between 60cm and 1m high. For sun or semi-shade in most soils.

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Hypericum uralum NJM 10.097 (new)

A collection of this pretty, dainty flowered species from the Far north of Vietnam at 1900m asl. A hardy semi-evergreen small growing species with slim, small foliage and pretty, golden-yellow little flowers only 2.5cm across borne on arching shoots in Aug and Sept. reaching between 60cm and 1m high. For sun or semi-shade in most soils.

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Idesia polycarpa

A rarely encountered, but highly ornamental medium sized deciduous tree from the Orient. Spreading branches clothed in fine, large, red stalked, heart-shaped foliage, glaucous beneath, and dangling bunches of bright red pea-like fruit on females in autumn. Male flowers are pinky-brown in pendant racemes and sweetly scented. Suitable for any good soil.

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Ilex cyrtura - Female (new)

A rarely encountered species from SW China and Upper Burma, suitable for the milder parts of the country, though a plant at the Hillier Gardens in Hampshire has survived for many years. Toothed, leathery leaves with a pronounced slender drip-tip adorn plants that can attain small tree proportions. Bright red fruits occur on females (like this).

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Ilex cyrtura - Male (new)

A rarely encountered species from SW China and Upper Burma, suitable for the milder parts of the country, though a plant at the Hillier Gardens in Hampshire has survived for many years. Toothed, leathery leaves with a pronounced slender drip-tip adorn plants that can attain small tree proportions.

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Ilex perado subsp. platyphylla (female)

The Canary Island Holly is one of the most distinct and striking of all on account of its short stalked and really very broad, dark green, leathery foliage, sometimes up to 15cm long by 10cm wide. It is surprisingly hardy. passing without injury in most areas even through very cold winters. A small bushy tree. This is a female clone.

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Illicium 'Woodland Ruby'

A cross between a white flowered form of I. floridanum and I. floridanum mexicanum, with larger flowers than either, in red-pink, borne in spring over evergreen leathery foliage. A medium sized shrub with all parts emitting a pleasing fragrance when crushed (well, I like it). Best in not over limy soil, a fairly sheltered spot and not too dry, in semi-shade.

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Illicium floridanum Halley's Comet'

A free flowering selection with deep red flowers and a vigorous but compact habit. Flowers are composed of many thin strappy petals, borne in spring over evergreen leathery foliage. A medium sized shrub with all parts emitting a pleasing fragrance when crushed (well, I like it). Best in a fairly sheltered spot, in not over limy soil, and not too dry, in semi-shade.

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Illicium henryi

A rare medium sized shrub from W China closely related to Japanese Anise. Thick evergreen leaves and lovely little rounded, flattened, bright rose flowers in May/June. At its best in good soil, not desperately limy, in semi shade.

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Illicium oligandrum

An obscure species of anise from SW China, where it forms evergreen forest trees to 12m. Here it will be much smaller, perhaps a tall shrub with time. Small pale yellow flowers are seen in summer. For a sheltered site. Full hardiness as yet unknown.

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Illicium simonsii

A superb relatively new introduction from China, forming a dense upright, evergreen, pyramidal shrub 3 to 5m tall. with creamy-yellow flowers, each up to 3.5cm across, in early spring. Good in sun or semi-shade and perfectly hardy in cultivation since its introduction in the 90's. Arguably the finest of the genus in cultivation. Not for very limy soil.

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Impatiens flanaganae

A little like a smaller, pink version of I. tinctoria. Forms a plant to maybe 60 to 100cm with red tinted stems and broad pink flowers with a spur at the rear produced in late summer/early autumn. Easy in cool conditions in never too dry soil. Dig up the tubers and store cool over winter, or chance them with a deep mulch. This particular form is a good rich pink.

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Impatiens omeiana 'Sango'

Named here, this is a new form of this hardy species from China with the most wonderful deep red pigment washed through the stems and leaves. Foliage emerges with metallic-pink narrow markings along the midribs of the leaves, expanding to a brownish-green with deep maroon undersides. Early autumn flowers are deep yellow and cream with orange speckling in the throat.

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Impatiens omeiana DJHC 98492

A Dan Hinkley collection of this variable species, from China. In this form the mildly serrated leaves are narrow, with a yellow mid-rib on a purplish-green blade. The elongated flowers are a soft creamy-yellow and are seen from mid-summer to autumn on stems to 50cm. For a not too dry site. Very hardy.

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Impatiens puberula HWJK 2063

Purple flowers in summer over a branching mound of leaves to 30cm. Proving quite hardy. Winter dormant. Humusy shade.

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Impatiens qingchengshanica 'Emei Dawn' (new)

Selected from a collection by Dan Hinkley in Sichuan, China this relatively low growing species bears a multitude of goodly sized softest pink flowers in autumn over green foliage. A very hardy species, the rhizomes surviving underground over winter. For shade and reasonable moisture.

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Indigofera himachalensis H&M 1818 (new)

A new species to cultivation in the UK from the Indian Himalaya, making a deciduous shrub up to 1.8m high, clothed in pretty pinnate foliage and bearing upright racemes of purple-pink pea flowers in summer. For a sunny site in well drained soil. Previously erroneously offered here as I. hancockii.

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Indigofera himalayensis Yu 10941

A very pretty little shrub from the W. Himalaya and apparently the earliest of the Indigofera to flower in the UK, opening its clear, bright pink pea flowers on short, erect racemes over the delicate bright green pinnate foliage in early summer. A hardy, previously unavailable, deciduous small shrub for a sunny site. This is wild source material.

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Indigofera howellii (syn. subverticillata)

A superb new species from China. Long racemes of vivid, warm-pink flowers project semi-horizontally from the typical attractive pinnate foliage over a long period in summer and autumn. Hardy in sun and well drained soil, being nipped back only lightly by the very coldest winters. Approx 2m high, though can be pruned to the ground each year if desired.

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Indigofera kirilowii

An unusual small Chinese sub-shrub with beautiful pinnate foliage and comparatively large almond-pink pea flowers in dense racemes during early summer. Very hardy, this acts as a herbaceous plant, re-growing strongly from the base when pruned hard in late winter. Plant in full sun. Drought tolerant.

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Indigofera kirilowii var. alba (new)

The particularly rare white form of this unusual small Chinese sub-shrub with beautiful pinnate foliage and comparatively large pure white pea flowers in dense racemes during early summer. Very hardy, this acts as a herbaceous plant, re-growing strongly from the base when pruned hard in late winter. Plant in full sun. Drought tolerant.

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Indigofera pendula

An absolute gem of a plant, relatively recently re-introduced from China, this tall growing species flowers for months during summer. Beautiful very, very long, pendant racemes of pink pea flowers, on close inspection really lilac-grey and deep carmine. Worth every effort to grow. Re-shoots strongly from the base if cut back hard. Full sun and well drained soil.

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Iochroma australe

This South American member of the potato family forms a free growing woody shrub to perhaps 2m tall, with softly hairy leaves and pendulous, funnel shaped, lilac-blue flowers, dangling along the undersides of the branches in late summer. This is most suited to a protected position, ideally a west wall or suchlike, but has shown remarkable tolerance to cold.

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Iochroma australe White flowered (new)

This South American member of the potato family forms a free growing woody shrub to perhaps 2m tall, with softly hairy leaves and pendulous, funnel shaped, white flowers, dangling along the undersides of the branches in late summer. This is most suited to a protected position, ideally a west wall or suchlike, but has shown remarkable tolerance to cold.

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Iris chrysographes 'Black Knight'

Elegant black-purple flowers to 45cm high in early summer over narrow, bright green foliage. Sun. A native of S. China and Burma.

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Itea ilicifolia

An evergreen, holly like shrub 2 to 3m high, often grown on a wall, but perfectly hardy away from one in semi-shade or full sun. The lax stems are laden with distinctive and highly attractive long, pendulous, catkin-like racemes of fragrant greenish-white flowers in late summer.

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Itea virginica 'Henry's Garnet'

A hardy, small, deciduous shrub from the Eastern USA, producing erect, cylindrical racemes of scented creamy-white flowers in July. This form is renowned for its excellent, rich red-purple autumn colour. Not for thin limey soils.

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Jasminum humile f. farreri Farrer 867 (new)

An original collection from N. Burma of this semi-scandent small to medium sized shrub to about 2m, with semi-evergreen pinnate foliage, composed of up to 7 leaflets. Clusters of bright yellow flowers are borne at the end of the shoots in summer. Easy and hardy in sun or semi-shade.

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Jeffersonia diphylla (new)

The Twinleaf from the Eastern USA inhabits the woodland floor and bears, in spring, pure white rounded flowers that rather resemble the Bloodroot, Sanguinaria. The foliage is splendid and distinctly bilobed, being divided almost in half, hence the common name. For leafy soil in semi-shade, not too dry

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Jeffersonia dubia (new)

Asian Twinleaf. A dwarf woodlander from the Far East with lavender-blue rounded flowers in spring, just before splendid, distinctly bi-lobed leaves emerge with a subtle red tint. For leafy soil in semi-shade, not too dry

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Jovellana punctata

Similar in many ways to J. violacea but with broader, larger foliage. Also from Chile, this too has very unusual looking flowers, being small and very deeply cup shaped, white with internal markings of purple yellow and red, and produced in bunches en-masse in June and July. For a sheltered, mild position in well drained soil or for a pot overwintered undercover.

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Jovellana violacea

A pretty little shrub from Chile with very unusual looking flowers. They are small and deeply cup shaped, pale violet with darker markings inside, and produced in bunches en-masse in June and July over delicate bright green foliage with contrasting dark stems. For a sheltered, mild position in well drained soil or grow it in a pot overwintered undercover.

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Juglans major (new)

Very handsome, but rarely seen, this is a classic example of a hardy, drought tolerant attractive tree with splendid foliage that should be far more widely grown. From Arizona and NW Mexico, this walnut is a hardy medium sized deciduous tree to about 15m high with a rounded crown and pinnate leaves composed of up to fifteen lance shaped leaflets.

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Juglans sigillata

A particularly rare species of walnut recently introduced from the Himalaya and China, where it grows up to 25m high and bears pinnate leaves up to 50cm long with a maximum of 15 leaflets. Known as the 'Iron walnut' in China where it is cultivated for nut production, the nut husks are relatively small and deeply pitted. Our gathering from Guizhou.

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Kalopanax septemlobus var. maximowiczii

A particularly desirable form of this species with very deeply and attractively lobed foliage. In essence this resembles a very bold maple with outsize leaves, but they are held on very spiny, thick shoots. A fast growing tree but only of small to medium size eventually. Large flattish heads of white flowers are seen in autumn. A member of the Aralia family from the Far East.

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Keteleeria davidiana

A close relative of the Silver firs, Abies, from China, rarely seen in cultivation but hardy, forming a small to medium sized tree with up to 6cm long sharply pointed needles when young, shortening with age. Conical in youth, but developing a flat topped crown in maturity. Cones up to 20cm long are reddish when young.

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Kirengeshoma palmata AGM

Lovely soft yellow, fleshy flowers in autumn, smart, lobed foliage on dark stems. Height 1m. Good, preferably humusy soil in shade or sun, not too dry in summer. This is lime tolerant even though the books say it isn't.

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Kirengeshoma palmata Koreana Group (new)

More erect and taller than the typical form with wider flared flowers. Lovely soft yellow, fleshy flowers in autumn, smart, lobed foliage on dark stems. Height 1.5m. Good, preferably humusy soil in shade or sun, not too dry in summer. This is lime tolerant even though the books say it isn't.

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Kniphofia 'Green Jade'

Unusual lime-green buds open to cream flowers in early autumn. Height to 1.5m. Sun.

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Kniphofia 'Shining Sceptre'

Apricot-orange buds open to golden-yellow flowers, contrasting gently with the copper tinted stems. 90cm. Sun.

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Kniphofia ichopensis (new)

A rare species Poker from South Africa with individual flowers well spaced on the spike, spreading, then strongly pendulous, in this selection from wild seed an unusual caramel colour, on stems to about 90cm in summer. An elegant and rarely seen species. Sun, not too dry.

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Kniphofia northiae

A distinct, huge Poker with leaves up to 2m long and over 10cm wide, arching out of a dense clump giving a very exotic effect. Big fat, dense, ovoid heads of very densely set flowers, pinkish-red in bud, and opening whitish-yellow in summer. Needs a sunny position in ordinary soil. I have seen this at 2500m in the Drakensberg, looking marvellous.

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Kniphofia pauciflora (new)

A dwarf South African species, now thought to be extinct in the wild. Short pokers of rich yellow from variably warm orange buds en masse in late spring/early summer and then sporadic flowers throughout the summer if happy, i.e. not bone dry and half starved. Height 45cm.

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Kniphofia rooperi

One of the finest species, with autumn flowers in distinctive very fat heads atop stems to 1.2m high. Flowers are vivid orange, turning yellow from the bottom up as they mature. Evergreen and hardy. Great with late grasses.

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Kniphofia rufa

A graceful poker with flower heads composed of particularly arching thin tubed flowers, opening greenish-yellow from orange-red buds in July. Height 90cm. Sun.

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Kniphofia thomsonii 'Kichocheo'

A distinctive recently wild collected poker from E. Africa, with the gently pendulous, soft orange and yellow flowers more closely packed in the spike than is typical, seen in summer and autumn. Repeat flowers. Height 1m. Sun.

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Kniphofia thomsonii var. thomsonii (new)

Distinctive slender pokers of widely spaced, gently pendulous, soft orange flowers in summer and autumn. Repeat flowers. Height 1m. Sun.

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Lagerstroemia 'Tuskarora' (new)

Masses of vibrant, deep coral-pink flowers are seen late summer and stems show attractive bark. A cross between L. indica and L. fauriei raised by Don Egolf in the USA, this, despite popular belief, flowers regularly in the Southern UK at least. Plants at Kew have been covered in flower in late summer for many years, including recent poor summers.

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Lagerstroemia 'Tuskegee'

Masses of vibrant, deep coral-pink flowers are seen late summer and stems show attractive bark. A hybrid between L. indica and L. fauriei raised by Don Egolf in the USA, this, despite popular belief, flowers regularly in the Southern UK at least. Plants at Kew have been covered in flower in late summer for many years, including recent poor summers.

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Lamprothyrsus hieronymi RCB RA K2-2

Elegant pampas grass relative from South America, only 1m tall and hugely more refined. Light, silvery flower heads arch outward in summer. Drought tolerant. For a sunny site.

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Laser trilobum PAB 3382

A recent collection of The Horse Caraway from Georgia, were it inhabited pine forest. Attractive compound blue-green foliage composed of rounded segments sits beneath loose white umbels of flower in summer. Height 60cm. Part shade. A lesser known spice, the seeds have a cumin-like aroma and are used widely in Turkey with the meat dish köfte.

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Laureliopsis philippiana

One of the most distinctive evergreen trees one can see in west coast gardens, though is hardier than you might imagine, to below -10c. Often confused with Laurelia sempervirens, both species native to Chile. A medium sized semi-weeping evergreen tree with smooth pale grey bark, distinctive, toothed, aromatic foliage and small white flowers in spring.

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Ledebouria cooperi

Dwarf clump forming bulb. Pinstriped leaves, heads of purple flowers like bunches of grapes. Sun, drainage, not too cold.

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Leptospermum 'County Park Blush' seedlings

Raised from seed from a very attractive parent, these are a mildly variable batch. Flowering in early summer; usually white flushed with pink, these will make upright evergreen shrubs with tiny grey-green leaves. Suitable for a wall in inland gardens, these are easy in the open in maritime areas. For a well drained neutral to acid soil in full sun.

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Leptospermum myrtifolium 'Silver Sheen'

A lovely metallic looking, upright, medium sized evergreen shrub with lots of little narrow silver leaves on reddish stems. White flowers produced in July. Best in full sun in well drained neutral to acid soils, though doing well near here on lime. Hardier than many other species of Leptospermum.

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Lespedeza thunbergii 'Edo Shibori'

A very distinctive Japanese form with pink and white bi-coloured flowers. As is typical of this late flowering sub-shrub the arching stems are weighed down in September and October by the massed flower display. Semi woody annual stems clad with pale green trifoliolate leaves rise to at least 1m or more from a hardy rootstock. Cut back hard in spring.

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Lespedeza thunbergii 'Gibraltar'

New from the USA this is a selected large growing form to about 1.5m. Billowing panicles of rose-purple pea flowers over trifoliolate pale green leaves bow the stems to the ground under their weight in Sept and Oct. This tough sub-shrub is best hard pruned to the ground every winter. Any well drained, even poor soil in sun.

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Leucostegia immersa PAB 7836 (new)

A low growing, spreading, deciduous fern collected on Shillong Peak, Meghalaya, NE India. Graceful, highly divided deltoid fronds to only 30cm emerge with a pink tinge. Remarkably hardy so far, but of course it hides from cold with underground rhizomes. Shade.

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Libertia chilensis Procera Group

A profusion of comparatively large 3 petalled white flowers hover above evergreen foliage in early summer on very tall stems to 120cm. Sun or part shade in well drained soil. Hardy here most winters, though the very coldest can set it back. The largest most striking plant in the genus.

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Libertia ixioides

Fans of olive green, orange tinted evergreen leaves. A mass of lovely small, pure-white flowers in early summer. Height 30cm. Striking foliage in cold weather. For a sunny site.

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Ligusticum lucidum

An excellent tough umbellifer with handsome very finely dissected airy green foliage and branched inflorescences of white umbels on stems to 120cm in summer. Sun, semi-shade, even very dry.

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Ligusticum scoticum (new)

Scotch Lovage. A native of NW Europe and NE America at higher latitudes, often near coasts and even on cliff tops, this tough perennial bears umbels of white flowers on dark stalks over broadly segmented thick textured glossy foliage in mid to late summer and reaches about 60cm in flower. All parts apart from the flowers are used culinarily.

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Ligustrum delavayanum

An evergreen species SW China. Dense panicles of white flowers with violet anthers are borne in summer, followed by small black fruits, this makes a medium sized shrub with small dark green glossy leaves; a good substitute for box and highly prunable, but also a great background plant. Hardy, though not the best for very cold, exposed sites.

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Ligustrum sp. B&L 12261 (new)

A Brickell and Leslie collection from China, this forms a large deciduous shrub with mid sized foliage and large panicles of scented white flowers in summer. Easy and tolerant in most positions. Species as yet unknown...

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Lilium formosanum var. pricei (new)

An elegant species endemic to Taiwan with very narrow linear foliage and beautiful trumpet shaped flowers, pure white in the face, but striped purple on the reverse, seen in summer. To 45cm tall, for neutral to acid soil.

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Lilium mackliniae PAB 9327 (new)

A recent reintroduction from Manipur of the fabled 'Manipur lily', originally found by Kingdon-Ward on Mt Sirhoi, Manipur and named after his wife, this is a very beautiful species with stems up to about 50cm in cultivation, bearing pale white-pink bell like flowers, flushed a little darker. For a cool position in humusy soil.

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Liquidambar acalycina

A rare and relatively recently introduced species from China, closely related to, but hardier than L. formosana, with 3-lobed leaves and new growth bronze-purple throughout the growing season, turning rich red-purple in late autumn. Makes a medium sized tree for any reasonable soil.

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Liquidambar styraciflua 'Palo Alto'

To me this is the finest form of the American Sweet Gum, with its maple-like leaves turning an extremely bright, long lasting, scarlet and orange in autumn. Will make a medium sized tree eventually. Very hardy and tolerant but not for shallow chalk soils. Autumn colour is better if sited in full sun.

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Liriodendron chinense

The rare Chinese Tulip Tree, differing from its big American cousin in its smaller stature and more ornamental, narrower waisted leaves more glaucous beneath and purplish on expansion. Similar tulip like flowers. Any ordinary soil. Wonderfully strong growing.

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Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera

A newly available hybrid between the N American and Chinese Tulip trees. As one might expect, it visually sits between the two parents, the leaves with reasonably deep lobing, turning to a rich, deep yellow in autumn. Tulip-like flowers yellow-green with orange markings in summer. Will make a large vigorous, impressive tree for a big garden or park.

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Lobelia tupa Tall form

These are derived from a Jim Archibald collection which makes very tall plants. Striking orange-red to scarlet flowers produced en masse in summer over grey-green leaves. Height to 2m or more. A magnificent species from Chile, requiring sun and reasonable drainage. Totally hardy with me, even at -14c in the big freeze of Jan 2010 and, even worse, Dec 2010.

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Lomatia ferruginea

A large evergreen shrub or small erect tree with magnificent, much divided, fern-like foliage and rusty coloured velvety stems. Short racemes of buff and scarlet flowers in July. Though growable in sheltered spots in the south (a big plant grows at Wakehurst Place, Sussex), it is ideally a plant for western seaboard gardens where it is hard to equal for foliage.

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Lomatia fraseri (new)

An Australian member of this Proteaceous genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, forming an upright multi-stemmed large shrub with long narrow, toothed, evergreen foliage, and clusters of fragrant white Grevillea-like flowers in summer, much loved by bees. Not good on thin chalk soils, though remarkably hardy and suitable for much of the British Isles.

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Lonicera aff. henryi NJM 11.033

A collection from 2000m elevation on Fanjingshan, Guizhou, China. This will make a vigorous semi-evergreen, but not massive climber for wall or fence with flowers yellow/red, seen in summer.

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Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica 'Larisa'

The Haskap is a superb alternative to blueberries, especially for those without acid soils. Forming an extremely hardy deciduous shrub 1.5m x 1.5m, with sea-green foliage and yellowish-white flowers followed by elongated blue tinged fruit in June/July. 'Larisa' is a clone selected for abundant fruit production and flavour.

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Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica 'Maries'

The Haskap is a superb alternative to blueberries, especially for those without acid soils. Forming an extremely hardy deciduous shrub 1.2m x 1.2m, with sea-green foliage and yellowish-white flowers followed by elongated blue tinged fruit in June/July. 'Maries' is a clone selected for abundant fruit production, sweet flavour and more compact growth form.

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Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica 'Rebecca' (new)

The Haskap is a superb alternative to blueberries, especially for those without acid soils. Forming an extremely hardy deciduous shrub 75cm x 75cm, with sea-green foliage and yellowish-white flowers followed by elongated blue tinged fruit in June/July. 'Rebecca' is a clone selected for abundant fruit production and flavour and a very compact habit.

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Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica 'Vicky' (new)

The Haskap is a superb alternative to blueberries, especially for those without acid soils. Forming an extremely hardy deciduous shrub 1.2m x 1.2m, with sea-green foliage and yellowish-white flowers followed by elongated blue tinged fruit in June/July. 'Vicky' is a clone selected for abundant fruit production, sweet flavour and more compact growth form.

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Lonicera henryi 'Copper Beauty'

This new variety of an excellent evergreen climber has copper-red new foliage throughout the growing season. Yellow flowers with a red stain in June and July. Strong growing and hardy.

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Lonicera pilosa F&M 207

A smallish climber to about 3m in the wild state, with bunches of tubular orange-red flowers in May-June and pale-green, small, neat foliage. Originally collected at 2600m above Miquihuana, Tamaulipas State, NE Mexico. Admired by all here, climbing on a 1.8m wooden screen. Very effective, bone hardy and why on earth is this not common in the UK?!

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Lonicera sp. KR 10608 (new)

One of Keith Rushforth's finds in Arunachal Pradesh at approx 2000m alt.. Unflowered as yet, but this evergreen climber has very handsome deep purple new foliage, of ovate form, with a matt finish, turning green later in the season. Looks to be a fairly vigorous thing.

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Lonicera subaequalis Ogisu 93.329

A striking and very rare honeysuckle species collected in Sichuan, China. A climber with fairly glaucous foliage, the leaf stalks often encircling the stem. Softly fragrant yellow flowers produced in small clusters in summer, backed by and semi-enclosed with a deep hood, creating a striking effect. Perfectly hardy.

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Luma apiculata 'Nana' (new)

A rare dwarf form with very small foliage and diminutive habit, making a shrub to perhaps 1m high? One would expect this to perhaps be a high altitude selection and it certainly looks very different to the normal tree forms. Usual mass of white flowers in late summer.

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Luma apiculata (syn. Myrtus luma) Hardy form

One of the very finest large shrubs/small trees for bark, it being a gorgeous smooth, cinnamon-orange, peeling in patches to reveal the white inner bark. Clouds of white myrtle flowers in late summer/autumn followed by edible black fruit. These are from plants known to have taken extreme cold in Dec 2010, so are worth trying anywhere with reasonable shelter.

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Luma chequen

A small evergreen densely leafy tree with small, aromatic, undulate, bright green foliage and a mass of scented creamy-white flowers in summer and autumn followed by black berries. One of the hardiest of all myrtles; totally untouched through Nov-Dec 2010 in rural Berkshire! Leaves can be used sparingly in soups etc and fruit make a fine preserve.

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Lunaria rediviva

This is a tall form of Perennial Honesty. Profuse lilac-white flowers over mid-green leaves in spring on a dense rounded plant of about 1.5m tall. Oval papery pods follow the flowers. For any normal soil conditions in sun or semi-shade. Lovely.

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Lunaria rediviva PAB 9877

A tall form of Perennial Honesty from Hungary reaching 1.5m. Profuse lilac-white flowers over mid-green leaves in spring. Oval papery pods follow the flowers. For any normal soil conditions in sun or semi-shade. Lovely.

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Lysimachia barystachys 'Huntingbrook'

A new cultivar, selected by me from Jimi Blake's garden, near Dublin. This makes healthy, vigorous, spreading clumps of slim vertical stems over 1m high in this form, topped by nodding, tapering heads of white flowers in late summer. This form was selected for its deep red stems and extra height, from a batch of seed raised plants from China.

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Lysimachia paridiformis var. paridiformis NJM 11.067 (new)

A new introduction (the first?) of the typical variety of this most handsome of ground cover perennials, from Guizhou, SW China, 2011. Four broadly obovate to elliptic leaflets per rosette with a boss of rich yellow flowers at their centres, on low stems to 30cm. Shade. Very different from the var. stenophylla, looking like a Paris out of flower.

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Macleaya cordata NJM 11.002 (new)

Plume Poppy. A 2011 collection from Guizhou, SW China, this was very attractive in seed when we found it at the side of the road; the tall branched heads covered in coral coloured seed capsules. A tall suckering perennial with very handsome grey-green well lobed foliage on glaucous bloomed stems, topped by large plumes of small white flowers.

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Magnolia 'Albatross'

This is a hybrid seedling of M. cylindrica, raised at Trewithen, Cornwall, forming a vigorous, broadly upright small to medium sized tree, bearing large, cup shaped, virtually pure white flowers in spring, opening to 30cm across. These appear white, but have a faint pink blush at the base of the tepals.

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Magnolia 'Anticipation'

From the famed American Magnolia breeder August Kehr, this is a very fine white flowered hybrid derived from open pollination of M. cylindrica. Similar to M. 'Albatross', this makes a vigorous medium sized tree with large white flowers, starting as goblets and opening to 26cm (10 inches) across. A slightly earlier season spring Magnolia.

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Magnolia 'Apollo'

A superb, exceptionally heavy flowering hybrid from New Zealand, this is a cross between M liliiflora and M. campbellii 'Lanarth', producing large quantities of big, star-shaped flowers in late March and April. The tepals are a dark rose-pink on the outside, showing an intense pinkish-purple as they open out. Makes a small round headed tree.

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Magnolia 'Athene'

One from the Jury stable in New Zealand, this makes a vigorous medium sized tree with large M. campbellii-like flowers with thick tepals, white with a pink stain at the base, seen on the bare branches in spring.

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Magnolia 'Atlas'

Truly huge flowers are borne on this plant from a very early age, sometimes from 3 years old, which makes quite an arresting site. They are of cup and saucer habit, pink on the outside, white within, and can be up to 36cm across, that's one and a quarter feet! Best to plant this medium size tree in some shelter to avoid wind damaged flowers. Full on Flower Power.

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Magnolia 'Black Tulip'

A superb and relatively new hybrid from New Zealand, showing very rounded goblet shaped flowers of a most intense port-wine red on the bare branches in spring. This colour is darker and more intense than M. 'Vulcan', which is one of the parents. An compact and upright small tree to about 4m tall, most suitable for small gardens.

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Magnolia 'Brixton Belle'

New from New Zealand, one of the hot houses of Magnolia breeding, comes this blowsy pink beauty. Large reddish-pink, M. campbellii shaped flowers, blush-pink within, are heavily set on the branches of specimens just a few years old. So, in essence, an instant M. campbellii. Parentage: (Sweet Simplicity x Black Tulip) x 'Sir Harold Hillier'.

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Magnolia 'Buzzard'

Rarely offered, this is a Cornish selection made by the late Nigel Holman of Chyverton from seedlings arising from open pollinated M. campbellii or M. c. subsp. mollicomata at Caerhays Castle. The flowers are large and the colour is a rich rose-purple along the lines of M. campbellii 'Lanarth' and are seen in March or April.. A medium sized hardy tree.

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Magnolia 'Caerhays Belle'

Any one who has seen this growing behind the castle at Caerhays knows its worth. A small to medium sized tree magnolia with sumptuous flowers, composed of broad, overlapping, spoon shaped salmon-pink tepals, borne very densely on the bare branches in spring, reaching 30cm wide and nodding outwards. 20cm long red-pink seed cones in autumn.

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Magnolia 'Charles Coates'

An unusual hybrid between M. sieboldii and M. tripetala raised at Kew, forming a small tree with strongly upright stems and broad-spreading branches. Flowers come in May and June after any frost and are heavily scented broad saucers of creamy-white with distinctly red centres and slightly crumpled tepals. Leaves large and pale under. Best in acid soil in semi-shade.

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Magnolia 'Daphne'

Considered to be one of the finest yellows of all by Magnolia buffs, this was bred in the late 1990's by the late August Kehr, a renowned American magnolia breeder. The colour is particularly rich, even in cool climates such as the UK, and to boot is very lime tolerant and late flowering, avoiding many late frosts. Should make a small tree.

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Magnolia 'David Clulow'

Still scarce, but regarded by those in the know as one of the finest of all white flowered magnolias. Large white, 'cup and saucer' flowers, with a faint hint of pink at the base of the tepals, are seen on the bare branches in spring. It flowers when very young and will eventually make a medium sized tree.

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Magnolia 'Delia Williams'

Raised at Caerhays Castle, this hybrid between M. campbellii subsp. mollicomata and M. sargentiana var. robusta is highly floriferous. The large, sumptuous sugar pink flowers with paler interiors have the very full form of the second parent but with a touch of the cup and saucer effect from the first. Makes a goodly tree to at least 16m in ideal conditions.

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Magnolia 'Felix Jury'

New on the scene, this is one of the latest generation of exceptional hybrids from the Jury stable in New Zealand. Huge, deep purple-pink, open-faced flowers up to 30cms across with broad tepals, on a strongly growing, upright, small to medium sized tree in March or April. Though the flowers are large they are wind tolerant. Truly spectacular.

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Magnolia 'Genie'

A fabulous new variety with deliciously dark flowers bred by Vance Hooper in New Zealand. Black-red buds open to rounded 15cm wide goblets of intensely deep red-purple in April, but are seen over many weeks in spring. Flowering starts as early as 1 year after grafting and plants make a compact, upright tree to about 3m in ten years.

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Magnolia 'Gold Star'

Quite distinct and very fine, this hybrid has a soft yellow coloured stellata flower type, the first ever to be produced, with flowers on the bare branches in April/May. Growth is strong and healthy producing a broad upright small tree, with the bonus of all new leaves stained purple-red, fading green as they mature. Very hardy and lime-tolerant. A very fine plant.

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Magnolia 'Golden Gift'

A highly rated yellow, being very compact and highly floriferous. Masses of buds, both at the tips and down the sides of the shoots, open to 10cm, rich yellow flowers, with a faint green flush at their bases, over a month long period in late spring. Described as a semi-dwarf, this is more of a shrub than a tree, so suitable for smaller gardens.

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Magnolia 'Hawk'

Thought to be M. sargentiana var. robusta x M. campbellii, this produces an abundance of richly coloured, rose-purple flowers in March, not looking too dissimilar to M. campbellii 'Lanarth' in colour. Makes a medium sized tree.

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Magnolia 'Honey Tulip'

The latest creation from the famed Jury stable in New Zealand, this is in essence a creamy yellow coloured version of 'Black Tulip', having the same rounded tulip shaped flowers. The tepals are of thick texture and the colour lasts well, without fading. Flowers are seen on the bare wood in spring rather than with the start of the leaves like some other yellows.

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Magnolia 'Ian's red'

An exciting new Magnolia from New Zealand, producing vibrant, deep purple-red flowers of good full form, about 20cm across, Makes a small upright, but well branched tree to about 5m. An Ian Baldick hybrid between M. 'Ruby' and M. 'Vulcan', so you can see where the rich colour comes from.

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Magnolia 'Iolanthe'

One of the very fine Jury hybrids from New Zealand. Huge soft pink, thick textured flowers up to 25cm across borne in abundance in mid-March, even on plants just 5 years old. Another feature is the huge hairy flower buds. Eventually a broad spreading small tree, best on reasonably good soil.

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Magnolia 'J.C. Williams'

A Cornish hybrid between M. sargentiana var. robusta and M. sprengeri 'Diva', this makes a full, medium sized, very hardy tree bearing an abundance of particularly arresting vivid lilac-purple-red flowers in spring, very similar in colour to M. campbellii 'Lanarth'. The original tree in full flower is a sight for sore eyes, absolutely smothered in bloom.

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Magnolia 'John Congreve'

A newly available hybrid from the magnificent Mount Congreve estate in S.E. Eire. A cross between M. sprengeri and M. sargentiana robusta, this fine tree was selected for its cyclamen-purple flowers that share more genes with the sprengeri parent and therefore flower later, helping to escape frosts, but also tip slightly outwards, showing their faces, like sargentiana.

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Magnolia 'Leda'

One of the most beautiful of all white flowered magnolias, due to the very elegant poise of the 23cm, pure white, cup and saucer flowers, with the outer tepals arching outward, but with their edges folded slightly inwards. Believed to be M. 'Pegasus' x M. campbellii var. alba, this has the growth form of the latter, though will not get as large; perhaps 6 - 9m max.

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Magnolia 'Limelight'

A vigorous new hybrid with erect, elongated, tulip-shaped flowers, creamy-yellow at the tip, becoming richer lower down, the whole with a subtle green wash, especially towards the base. Very effective. Makes a multi-stemmed large shrub or small tree.

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Magnolia 'Lois'

A highly regarded new-ish yellow hybrid, thought of as an improvement on M. 'Elizabeth'. Upright tulip-shaped flowers are a clear primrose-yellow and are seen over a four to five week period from mid-April in southern England, not fading as 'Elizabeth' does. This is a hardy small tree, suitable for limey soils.

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Magnolia 'Lotus'

One of the early hybrids from New Zealand, which the Jury stable regard as Felix Jury's finest white hybrid, this one has beautifully shaped, large, almost pure white flowers in mid spring. A small to medium sized deciduous tree, slower to reach maximum flowering potential but spectacular when it does. The parentage is 'Mark Jury' x 'Lennei Alba'.

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Magnolia 'Manchu Fan'

A highly floriferous and highly regarded Gresham hybrid, bearing tulip-shaped white flowers in great profusion on the bare branches in mid spring. Flowers have a merest hint of pink at the base, but are effectively white. Makes a small tree that flowers from a very early age; most often in a pot on the nursery.

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Magnolia 'March til Frost'

A new break in Magnolia breeding, this one bears a continuous production of rich purple-pink flowers with pale interiors throughout the entire growing season, followed by upright red-tinged seed cones in autumn. Makes a hardy large shrub to small tree for any good soil.

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Magnolia 'Margaret Helen'

A recent intro from New Zealand where it was bred by Vance Hooper. A cross between M. liliiflora 'Nigra' and M. campbellii subsp. mollicomata 'Bernie Hollard', this combines a compact growth habit with free flowering, the flowers being fairly large and a particularly bright, warm rose-pink.

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Magnolia 'Phelan Bright' (new)

One of the finest white, spring flowering Magnolias. Raised by Gresham, this flowers relatively late in the season, with pure white, broad tepals, with only a hint of pink hidden at the bases. Usually makes a single stemmed, upright small tree.

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Magnolia 'Phillip Tregunna'

Raised at Caerhays in 1960, this hybrid of M. sargentiana var. robusta and M. campbellii is very highly rated by the Magnolia expert Graham Rankin. Making a large tree, this bears broad tepalled purplish-pink flowers that open to show pale purplish-pink interiors, on the bare branches in mid spring.

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Magnolia 'Porcelain Dove'

A unusual hybrid of M. globosa and M. virginiana var. australis, making a semi-evergreen small to medium sized multi-stemmed tree. Large, pure white flowers with a rich spicy fragrance produced from late May into summer, so escaping any frost. The foliage leans toward M. virginiana as do the flowers, but the latter are larger.

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Magnolia 'Purple Sensation'

A very fine new addition from Ian Baldick in NZ, where he crossed M. liliiflora 'Nigra' with M. campbellii 'Lanarth' and produced a plant similar to the fabulous 'Lanarth', but that flowers later, helping to avoid late spring frosts. Glowing deep lilac-pink cup and saucer flowers borne at a young age on a tree to only 8m high.

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Magnolia 'Shirazz'

Living up to its name (though strangely with two z's) this is new from New Zealand, raised from a cross between M. denudata and M. 'Vulcan'. A vigorous upright small tree to perhaps 8m, with initially tulip shaped, fruity scented flowers of a true burgundy-red that fade slightly to lilac purple at their edges and then open out wide on the bare branches in spring.

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Magnolia 'Sir Harold Hillier'

A hybrid of unknown parentage which bears exceptional, pure white flowers of cup and saucer shape and substantial size, up to 30cm across, in mid-spring. It is thought one of the parents is M. campbellii var. alba, for obvious reasons, though how big this cultivar will get is unknown as yet. According to Graham Rankin a 'magnificent magnolia'. Most rare.

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Magnolia 'Star Wars'

A superb and exceptionally long flowering hybrid raised in New-Zealand in the 1970's. Makes a small to medium sized tree, flowering when only 4-5yrs old, deep pink in bud opening to pink with a white interior, about the same size as M. campbellii. Good, moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Magnolia 'Susanna van Veen'

This fine hybrid seems to be of the parentage M. sargentiana var. robusta x sprengeri; the same parents as for 'Caerhays Belle'. The flowers are of a richer colour than the latter, being rose-pink, darker on the outside. They assume a sumptuous floppy shape similar to sargentiana var. robusta when fully open. Very furry buds in winter. Should make a medium tree.

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Magnolia 'Sweet Valentine'

Goblet shaped flowers of an intense red-purple, palest pink within. One of the new generation of hybrids from Vance Hooper in New Zealand, from a cross between 'Sweet Simplicity' and 'Black Tulip', made in the late 1990's. Makes a compact small tree or large shrub to about 3m, with flowers from a very young age; often flowering in a pot on the nursery.

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Magnolia 'Sybille'

A spectacular and relatively new hybrid from Arboretum Wespelaar in Belgium, this is a cross between 'White Giant' and 'Leda' giving rise to really quite striking, very large pure white flowers up to 30cm across with particularly wide tepals. Flowering mid spring on the bare branches, this will probably make a small to medium tree eventually.

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Magnolia 'Yellow Fever'

This yellow flowered hybrid between M. acuminata and M. denudata has a relatively upright form, eventually becoming a medium sized tree. Flowers are upright goblets of soft yellow, with a very subtle apricot tinge, opening to a pale cream-yellow, seen just before the leaves emerge and thus avoiding most frosts.

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Magnolia 'Yellow Lantern'

One of the finer yellow flowered hybrids, forming an upright small tree with tulip-shaped soft yellow flowers on the bare branches in spring. Further flowers open as the leaves emerge. With its fastigiate habit, this is very useful for tight spaces.

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Magnolia 'Yuchelia' (new)

A hybrid between M acuminata 'Miss Honeybee' (Yulania Sect.) and M. figo (Michelia Sect.). One of the first crosses between these Sections, producing a deciduous plant with predominantly rich pink flowers, whitish-pink within and with a rich scent. Should make a small tree 3 or 4m high. Hardy throughout most of the UK.

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Magnolia campbellii 'Betty Jessel'

A truly exceptional form of the species with flowers close to crimson in their colouring. Also one of the last forms of M. campbellii to flower in spring, with 25cm diameter flowers seen in April and sometimes May.

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Magnolia campbellii 'Kew's Surprise'

One of the Raffillii Group of M. campbellii and so preferred for inland gardens where frosting of flowers can otherwise be a problem, this form has flowers of exceptional quality, which show the cup and saucer habit to sensational effect. Large, rich-pink flowers show a white, pink-veined upper side to the tepals when open. Makes a vigorous, medium to large tree.

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Magnolia campbellii 'Lionel de Rothschild'

A particularly fine selection from the magnificent gardens of Mount Congreve, Ireland. Classic cup and saucer flowers of an intense dark wine-red, seen on the bare branches of this medium sized tree in early spring. Like any M. campbellii this is best sited out of frost pockets to avoid damage to the early flowers.

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Magnolia campbellii 'Queen Caroline'

A rarely seen form of this classic tree magnolia, raised at Kew gardens in 1904 from material sent from India. Flowers are an exceptional deep red-purple with a paler interior and measure up to 23cm diameter. An early flowerer, so a sheltered but sunny site with good frost drainage is a good idea.

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Magnolia campbellii subsp. mollicomata 'Lanarth'

A most desirable member of the tree Magnolias, this Cornish selection has very large flowers of a most distinctive cyclamen-purple-pink, with darker stamens borne on the bare branches in early spring. Quite distinct among mollicomatas, this form has large flower buds and broader foliage.

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Magnolia campbellii var. alba 'Strybing White' (new)

A unique form of this pure white flowered variety, where the outer tepals droop down vertically around the otherwise upright cup shape of the inner tepals as they age. Raised in California from seed sent from Darjeeling. Potentially a medium to large tree with flowers seen early in the spring, therefore sensible siting is necessary.

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Magnolia caveana NJM 13.037 (new)

Thought to be a new introduction to the West, this was found in Manipur at 2015m asl amongst other temperate flora. A member of Sect. Manglietia, this is a handsome species in foliage alone, with relatively broad evergreen leaves emerging flushed with coppery tones and ginger terminal buds. White flowers in summer. Probably best suited to milder gardens.

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Magnolia caveana NJM 13.044 (new)

Thought to be a new introduction to the West, this was found in Manipur at 2015m asl amongst other temperate flora. A member of Sect. Manglietia, this is a handsome species in foliage alone, with relatively broad evergreen leaves emerging flushed with coppery tones and ginger terminal buds. White flowers in summer. Probably best suited to milder gardens.

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Magnolia dawsoniana 'Chyverton Red'

One of the finest forms of this lovely Chinese species, from Chyverton Garden, Cornwall, this grows to be a neat small to medium sized tree. Remarkably frost tolerant bright crimson flowers are produced before the leaves emerge in spring and are seen over a six week period. Thought by some to be a hybrid with M. sprengeri, which is no bad thing.

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Magnolia delavayi

One of the finest broadleaf evergreens growable in this country. A truly magnificent small tree, best grown against a wall in all but the mildest areas, bearing huge sea-green leaves matt above and paler beneath. Parchment coloured, slightly fragrant flowers to 20cm across open in the evening, through late-summer and autumn. Very tolerant of limey, even chalky soils.

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Magnolia doltsopa NJM 12.028

A recent reintroduction from the mountains of Manipur, NE India, collected at nearly 2400m asl. A virtually evergreen, highly floriferous small to medium sized tree that makes wonderful specimens in the South West UK, but a customer tells me he has a tree growing in woodland in the N. Welsh mountains! Powerfully scented white flowers in spring emerge from rusty-ginger, hairy buds. Leaves are leathery, glossy green with a glaucous underside.

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Magnolia doltsopa NJM 12.047

A recent reintroduction from the mountains of Manipur, NE India, collected at over 2200m asl. A virtually evergreen, highly floriferous small to medium sized tree that makes wonderful specimens in the South West UK, but a customer tells me he has a tree growing in woodland in the N. Welsh mountains! Powerfully scented white flowers in spring emerge from rusty-ginger, hairy buds. Leaves are leathery, glossy green with a glaucous underside.

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Magnolia doltsopa NJM 13.051

A recent reintroduction from the mountains of Manipur, NE India, collected at nearly 2400m asl. A virtually evergreen, highly floriferous small to medium sized tree that makes wonderful specimens in the South West UK, but a customer tells me he has a tree growing in woodland in the N. Welsh mountains! Powerfully scented white flowers in spring emerge from rusty-ginger, hairy buds. Leaves are leathery, glossy green with a glaucous underside.

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Magnolia ernestii (new)

An evergreen Chinese species with a rounded crown and vigorous growth. Yellowish-cream flowers borne in summer are on the smaller side, but the splendid fragrance scents the air around. Proven hardy over many years in a cold Herefordshire garden, where it defoliates in cold winters, to no detriment.

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Magnolia figo (syn. Michelia figo)

A classic conservatory plant, filling your room with the most incredibly delicious scent over a long period in spring/summer. Only one of the small, purple edged, cream coloured flowers is needed to stop you in your tracks. Makes a bushy evergreen shrub. Can be grown outside in the mildest areas. (now known correctly as Magnolia figo)

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Magnolia globosa (new)

Originally collected in Northern Burma. Rarely seen, either in gardens or nurseries, this Himalayan species lives up to its name with creamy-white, nodding, scented, globular flowers borne on stout felted stalks in June. Best in a sheltered site, it will make a fully hardy large shrub or even a small tree given time. Related to M. wilsonii, M. sieboldii etc.

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Magnolia laevifolia (syn. Michelia yunnanensis)

A relatively newly available species forming a medium to large evergreen shrub with small leaves brown on their undersides when young, and deliciously fruity scented creamy white flowers opening flat in spring from handsome velvety brown buds. Tough, easy and lime tolerant, this hardy species demands a prime position. Also known as Magnolia dianica!

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Magnolia liliiflora 'Raven'

A very new introduction from Korea, this is an exceptional clone of the species with very rich flower colour, being an intense dark purple with a white interior. The flowers have the typically delicious lemony fragrance associated with M. liliiflora and are seen for a long period, starting as the olive-green leaves emerge in spring, so usually avoiding late frosts.

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Magnolia lotungensis (new)

Previously known as Parakmeria, this Chinese evergreen species has proven very hardy in cultivation in the USA, with no damage even down to -18c. Foliage is very glossy and emerges with rich copper tones and the habit is particularly narrow. Smallish flowers are a rich cream with comparatively large purplish-red filaments, seen in summer.

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Magnolia macrophylla ex 'Whopper' (new)

One of the most magnificent of hardy flowering trees, not only for its vast white, purple-marked flowers in summer, opening up to 45cm wide, but also for its gargantuan foliage. Each leaf, with a silver-white underside, is up to 60cm long in the UK, though bigger at home in the S.E. USA. Shelter from wind, good soil, and a warm spot suit this hardy tree well.

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Magnolia macrophylla subsp. ashei x subsp. dealbata F1 (new)

An extremely exciting cross between two exceptional plants. Produced in New Zealand with the hope of combining shorter stature with thicker textured foliage, these are F1 seed raised plants that make tropical looking hardy small trees with huge foliage, whitewashed underneath, and vast white flowers in summer

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Magnolia macrophylla subsp. ashei x virginiana

A new hybrid between two excellent American parents and visually leaning towards the former. Makes a large shrub or very small tree with substantial foliage and big white fragrant flowers up to 30cm across, each tepal blotched at the base on the upper side with purple. A summer flowering magnolia, escaping all frosts.

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Magnolia obovata (syn. hypoleuca)

A vigorous and very attractive medium sized tree for good soil. Very, very strongly fragrant creamy flowers with crimson stamens borne in May/June over huge obovate leaves, followed by big red fruit clusters. A wonderful tree that should be in every tree collection and/or reasonably sized garden. The scent drifts on the breeze for quite some distance.

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Magnolia officinalis var. biloba

Rarely seen or offered, this hardy Chinese species has striking large paddle shaped leaves up to 50cm long, glaucous beneath, distinctly bum-shaped with a deep notch at the apex. Flowers in early summer with parchment-white, red-centred fragrant saucers borne at the end of the shoots. Attractive red cones of seed an added bonus in autumn.

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Magnolia rostrata

An arresting, very rare species for a sheltered garden, where it will become a spectacular medium to large tree. Huge foliage to 50cm in length emerges chestnut-felted and turns through a unique shade of violet flushed copper-green. Flowers melon-scented and creamy-white in June, similar to M. officinalis. Not for very cold areas.

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Magnolia salicifolia 'Van Veen' (new)

A form selected in Switzerland for very fragrant flowers and fine bamboo-like foliage. The white flowers are borne profusely in early spring, and the attractive foliage is aniseed scented when crushed. This species will make a small to medium sized tree, and is suitable for sun or semi-shade on good soil.

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Magnolia salicifolia Upright form

These are grafted from a tree growing at the Garden House in Devon, which has a very upright form. Possibly the same as Millais' var. fastigiata? The white flowers are typically scented and borne profusely in early spring, and the willow-like foliage is aniseed scented when crushed. This species will make a small to medium sized tree, and is suitable for sun or semi-shade on good soil.

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Magnolia sapaensis NJM 09.168

A new species to science, named in 2010, though found and collected by me in 2009. A member of Section Manglietia, this small evergreen tree, only known from around 2300m altitude in N. Vietnam, near Sapa, has foliage white glaucous on the underside and very attractive rufous-ginger silken hairy terminal buds. White flowers are stained purple on the outer tepals.

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Magnolia sargentiana var. robusta 'Blood Moon'

Originally selected at what is now San Francisco Botanic Garden, this has larger flowers of a darker colour than any other clone of the species. Flowers are rich purplish-pink, slightly paler within and nod outwards as they open. They are borne in mid spring on the bare branches. Makes a medium sized hardy tree, spectacular in flower.

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Magnolia sargentiana var. robusta 'Multipetal'

A unique form of this wonderful Asiatic tree magnolia from the fabulous Mount Congreve garden in Ireland, though named by Sir Peter Smithers; the large flowers are composed of up to twenty seven pale-pink tepals and are subsequently so heavy that they try and hang upside down. A sumptuous blowsy beauty.

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Magnolia sieboldii 'Colossus'

Regarded as the finest form of the species with profuse, very fragrant flowers up to 15cm across, composed of between 10 and 17 heavy textured white tepals surrounding the central deep red stamen, the leaves are up to 30cm long and 15cm wide. A 'mega' clone, created by August Kehr and though to be hexaploid. Should reach about 3 to 4m tall.

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Magnolia sieboldii 'Genesis' x virginiana

A hybrid between two summer flowering species. This has foliage that leans toward the virginiana parent, being slimmer, and the richly scented flowers are creamy white and bowl shaped when open with a slightly heavier texture than M. virginiana. A large shrub or very small tree in time, for any rich soil.

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Magnolia sieboldii 'Pride of Norway'

Originating from the famed stable of the late, ace Magnolia breeder August Kehr, this is very similar to 'Colossus', being a tetraploid form of the species. Flowers are of a larger size and heavier texture than the norm, being up to nearly 13cm across with 10 - 14 white tepals and with all the powerful fragrance as usual. A summer flowering large shrub to about 3m.

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Magnolia sieboldii DJHG 11120 (new)

A Dan Hinkley collection of this summer flowering species from Guizhou, China, producing fragrant white, red centred, semi-pendulous, cup-shaped, lemony-fragrant blooms on leafy branches intermittently from May to August. Flowers are borne from a young age on a slow growing eventually large shrub. A very fine species, best suited to a neutral to acid soil.

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Magnolia sieboldii subsp. sinensis

This large deciduous shrub has an appearance similar to M. wilsonii and reaches a maximum of 6m high with pendulous, fragrant white saucers dangling from the undersides of the branches in May and June, enhanced by a ring of crimson stamen at the centre of each. For good acid or alkaline soil.

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Magnolia sieboldii subsp. sinensis 'Grandiflora'

This large deciduous shrub has an appearance similar to M. wilsonii and reaches a maximum of 6m high with pendulous, fragrant white saucers dangling from the undersides of the branches in May and June, enhanced by a ring of crimson stamen at the centre of each. This form has particularly large flowers and a strong second flush in August. For good acid or alkaline soil.

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Magnolia sprengeri 'Lanhydrock'

A selection of this hardy, highly regarded tree magnolia with flowers of a richer colour than its parent 'Diva'. Produced en-masse on the bare branches in spring, flowers are a superb rich purple-pink. Makes a vigorous medium sized tree. Highly recommended for gardeners who wish to grow M. campbellii but haven't got the conditions for it.

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Magnolia sprengeri 'Marwood Spring'

A relatively new selection from Marwood Hill garden in Devon, this form has deep red-purple flowers, creamy-white flushed purple within, to 15cm across in spring, the contrast oif which is stunning. A medium sized, floriferous, upright tree of exceptional beauty, ideal where a spring flowering tree magnolia is wanted, but M. campbellii is out of the question.

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Magnolia sprengeri 'Westonbirt'

A relatively new selection of this superb species, selected for its vigour and flowers. Quite unlike other forms, this seedling of the original Caerhays M. sprengeri 'Diva' has grown exceptionally fast at Westonbirt arboretum, making 25m in about 40yrs. Flowers are a rich, warm pink and of good size and form, and cover the tree in early spring, followed by long red fruit pods.

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Magnolia sprengeri NJM 11.015

Found at over 2000m on Leigong Shan, Guizhou, SW China, this represents a new collection form a little collected area, now and historically. The one flower seen so far was white and the parent tree was approx 7 to 8m tall with a rounded crown. The diversity in flower size and colour of wild M. sprengeri has only recently begun to be understood.

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Magnolia sprengeri x campbellii

The original tree from which this is derived grows at Westonbirt arboretum, Gloucestershire, and is notable for its rich, dark flowers, on the red side of purple-pink, of good size and form, borne in spring on the bare branches. So far it has made a vigorous, upright specimen to about 18m and is still growing strongly. Sun or semi shade in reasonably good soil.

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Magnolia stellata 'Jane Platt'

Regarded as the finest pink form of the species. This cultivar is extremely floriferous and has up to 30 tepals per flower in a rich, deep pink (the deepest pink of all the stellatas). Makes a slow growing densely branched shrub, or, given 50 years or so, a small tree. Hardy, easy and tolerant.

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Magnolia wilsonii

A large wide spreading shrub with saucer like, white, crimson centred flowers hung from the undersides of the branches in May/June, therefore escaping late frosts. Best in partial shade, and in a position where one can look up under the branches to the dangling blooms. One of the most lime tolerant of Magnolias.

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Magnolia x loebneri 'Leonard Messel'

Similar in many ways to a stellata, this bushy little hybrid small tree or large shrub bears a multitude of lilac-pink flowers with multiple strap shaped tepals on the bare branches in early spring. Very lime tolerant and highly regarded.

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Magnolia x proctoriana

A large, very floriferous shrub, a hybrid of salicifolia and stellata, producing fragrant, pure white flowers of a more refined, poised nature than a stellata, usually with less tepals. Leaves emit a pleasant fragrance when crushed. Lime tolerant and hardy.

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Magnolia x wieseneri

There can be few other plants perfectly hardy in these isles with flowers as incredibly fragrant as these. This makes a large shrub or small tree, producing its upward facing, saucer-shaped flowers in June and July. They are creamy-white with a central boss of deep-red stamens and smell like nothing else. A cut flower in a room becomes overpowering.

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Magnolia x wieseneri 'Aashild Kalleberg'

A form of this hybrid, between M. sieboldii and M. obovata, raised in Sweden in 1988. Makes a more upright tree than other forms and seems to lean more toward M. obovata, having leaves up to 43cm long. The exceptionally fragrant flowers are white, tulip shaped in bud, opening wide to show the central red stamens and are seen over a long period in summer.

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Mahonia 'Pan's Peculiar'

There is no other Mahonia that looks like this, with its relatively short, congested, pinnate leaves arching downward to form hummocks of foliage on the upright stems. Winter flowers are large soft-yellow and well scented, similar to one of its parents. A hardy hybrid between M. duclouxiana and M. japonica that I've grown for over a decade without a name, until now!

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Mahonia bodinieri

A large and fast growing species from China reaching 3 to 4m high, with huge pinnate, tough, leathery leaves forming a magnificent, very broad rosette atop pale corky barked stems. Clusters of erect terminal racemes bearing bright yellow flowers are borne in early autumn, followed by bloomy, purplish-black fruits. A very striking and particularly unusual species.

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Mahonia duclouxiana KR 7692 (syn. M. siamensis) (new)

A collection of this variable entity from the Mekong-Salween divide, Yunnan, SW China. A shrub to 3m tall with bold handsome, large, pinnate foliage and huge branched heads of richly scented yellow flowers in winter; paniculate rather than the most often seen racemes. Probably best in a fairly sheltered spot come a very cold winter, but very rare in cultivation.

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Mahonia eurybracteata subsp. ganpinensis (new)

An attractive, small, erect, evergreen shrub from China with elegant, pinnate foliage. In this form the leaflets are less than 1.5cm wide, making for particularly beautiful foliage. Widely used for foliage effect in municipal plantings in China. Upright racemes of pale yellow flowers in autumn, followed by bloomy, blue-black berries. Filtered sun or deep shade.

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Mahonia eurybracteata x nitens

The batch of seed from which these were raised came from a plantsman's garden where many rare Mahonia grow. They appear to be M. eurybracteata x nitens, but I can't be sure of this. No matter, they are rather unique and attractive to boot, with good foliage and terminal, erect racemes of sometimes orange tinted yellow flowers in autumn. A small shrub.

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Mahonia gracilipes

A handsome and fascinating species, introduced from China by Roy Lancaster in 1980. Forming a low evergreen shrub, the foliage is strikingly chalky white beneath, and the flowers are a most unusual purple-red with a creamy-white inner, held on wiry, branched stems. Fruits are bloomy blue-black, seen in winter. Best in a sheltered, semi-shaded position.

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Mahonia gracilis

This fine Mexican species is unaccountably rare here in the UK. An evergreen shrub to about 2m with racemes of distinctively fragrant yellow flowers on red stalks in late winter/spring over pinnate foliage with bright red petioles and rachis. For sun or semi-shade and reasonable shelter, though has proven exceptionally hardy here, even through Dec 2010!

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Mahonia haematocarpa (new)

A rarely grown native of South Western USA and Northern Mexico. Making a medium sized evergreen shrub up to about 2.5m tall, with light blue-grey pinnate foliage composed of narrow spiny leaflets. Yellow flowers borne in spring all along the vigorous shoots, followed by bright red berries. Sun and drained soil.

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Mahonia magnifica (new)

Well named, this impressive species, first found by Kingdon Ward in Manipur, makes a large multistemmed evergreen shrub with splendid large pinnate foliage composed of long taper pointed well spined leaflets, the veins deeply impressed above. Long racemes of fragrant yellow flowers in spring. This collection from the highest peaks of Mizoram. Hardiness unknown.

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Mahonia moranensis T 292

A fine Mexican Mahonia, very rarely seen in gardens, but makes, for instance, large and fully hardy specimens at RHS Wisley. This is potentially a large, very full, densely branched shrub, making specimens clothed to the ground with particularly attractive, relatively short pinnate foliage with undulate leaflets. Short, dense racemes of vivid yellow flowers in spring.

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Mahonia nitens

Beautifully formed relatively diminutive foliage emerges a glorious and incredibly shiny copper-red before turning deep green with a red blotch at the base of each well spined leaflet. Late summer flowers are red to orange in bud, opening orange-yellow. A small evergreen upright shrub from China, quirte different from commonly grown species.

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Mahonia oiwakensis

One of the most visually arresting species in the genus, from the mountains of Taiwan, with superb evergreen pinnate foliage, with up to 14 long narrow leaflets per leaf. Making a large shrub eventually, with bright yellow flowers in spreading/ascending inflorescences at the shoot tips in autumn/winter. Very hardy.

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Mahonia pallida

A lovely, demure Mexican species only reaching approximately 1.5m. The pinnate foliage is blue-grey-green and more restrained than many species. The flowers are, as the name suggests, white and pale yellow and are held in panicles up to 25cm long from summer to autumn, followed by white bloomed blue-black fruit. For a warm sheltered spot in sun or shade.

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Mahonia pinnata 'Ken S. Howard'

A selected form of a rare West Coast USA native, this makes an evergreen shrub to about 1.2m high with handsome, spiny, very glossy, heavily textured pinnate foliage that emerges in spring heavily red flushed. Congested panicles of rich yellow flowers are also seen in spring. For a sunny or part shade site in well drained soil. Most unusual. AKA 'Ken Hartman'.

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Mahonia pinnata subsp. insularis 'Schnilemoon' (new)

New to the UK, a selection from an endangered race from Santa Cruz Island, California. Foliage emerges bronze tinted and bright green leaflets are relatively flat and almost spineless in comparison with the very undulate spiny leaflets of 'Ken S. Howard'. Congested panicles of rich yellow flowers in spring. To 1.5m high and wide. Very tough and drought tolerant.

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Mahonia sheridaniana Ogisu 93033 (new)

A striking Mahonia recently introduced from China with distinct foliage. A large multistemmed shrub to perhaps 3m tall, the pinnate foliage composed of spiny leaflets, each uniformly twisting and curling downwards to some degree, forming a unique effect. Erect racemes of yellow flowers in autumn followed by bloomy blue-black fruit.

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Mahonia trifolia EKB 4618 (new)

A very little known, but very hardy species from high altitude in C Mexico. A slow growing species, eventually reaching 3 or 4 metres in height with very dark green, hard, rigidly spiny leaflets held in threes or fives which turn to deep plum shades in cold winters. Rich yellow flowers are held in clusters up the stems in spring. Closely related to M. moranensis.

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Mahonia x lindsayae 'Cantab'

An exceptional hybrid with superb parentage: M. japonica gives the hardiness and fragrance while the rare and tender M. siamensis offers huge drooping foliage with widely spaced leaflets. Winter flowering with racemes of large, soft yellow, sweetly scented flowers. Makes a wide medium sized shrub. Never available (why not?). It is now.

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Mahonia x media F2 (new)

A rather distinct backcross of the commonly grown 'Charity', raised at Windsor. In this form the large handsome pinnate foliage is composed of particularly flat and relatively slim leaflets, all sitting in one plane, giving an unusual texture. Light yellow flowers in upright racemes in mid winter. A large evergreen shrub for sun or shade.

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Mahonia x savilliana

A rare hybrid between two unusual species; eurybracteata and gracilipes, both introduced by Roy Lancaster in 1980 from Sichuan, China. A smallish, erect, evergreen shrub with variably upright cylindrical racemes of yellow flowers, variably red tinged, in autumn. Foliage can favour either parent. Has grown to 1.8m in 17yrs with me. Sun or shade in most soils.

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Maianthemum racemosum 'Emily Moody' (syn. Smilacina)

A fine form from the States, making a slightly larger plant with bigger heads of frothy scented white flowers in spring. Equally delicious fragrance and red fruit. Easy in moist-ish leafy soil in part shade. Up to 90cm

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Maianthemum stellatum

A dainty Solomon's seal relative from North America with narrow leaflets on the 30-45cm stems which terminate with a cluster of starry white flowers in spring. Red berries follow in autumn. Humusy soil in part shade.

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Mallotus japonicus

A great foliage plant for a reasonably sheltered position, this very rarely encountered large shrub or small tree from the Far East is principally grown for its handsome leaves. New foliage emerges covered in fine hair and starts deep red, turning through soft brown to green. Male and female flowers on separate plants, the females in large creamy panicles.

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Malus aff. prattii SICH 755

An excellent recent introduction from SW China forming a neat compact small tree with a mass of white flowers in spring, handsome large ovate foliage turning to rich autumn tints and conspicuous orange and red flushed fruit lasting well after the leaves have fallen. Hardy.

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Malus transitoria

A particularly elegant small, spreading tree with deeply and narrowly lobed leaves, covered in May with fragrant creamy white blossom. Beautiful in its golden yellow autumn colour with the multitude of tiny, round, pea sized yellow fruit. One of the very finest crabs and highly regarded by those in the know. A lacy delight.

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Marsdenia oreophila (syn. Cionura)

An unusual and exotic looking evergreen climber bearing clusters of starry, deliciously sweetly scented, creamy flowers over a long period in summer. Reaches about 5m on a sunny wall, in well drained soil. Has survived for years on a house wall in a customers cold Midlands garden and another chap has it up to the rafters in Bristol, even through Dec 2010.

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Matteuccia struthiopteris

Ostrich Plume Fern. Beautiful, symmetrical 'Shuttlecocks' of fresh, very light-green fronds in spring, opening out during summer. Spreads slowly underground to form a colony. Ht to 1m. Moist, even boggy soil in shade/semi-shade.

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Matthiola fruticulosa 'Alba'

A perennial stock with deliciously fragrant white flowers in summer. Striking grey foliage. To 75cm. Sun, drainage.

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Maytenus boaria

An evergreen small tree from Chile, and other S American countries, of simple graceful elegance, bearing smallish, narrow, glossy-green foliage on slender branches. Usually has an oval crown with drooping branches. Zillions of tiny green flowers borne in spring. Rarely planted in the UK, though hardy and of easy cultivation on most soils, even on thin chalk.

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Maytenus magellanicus

An obscure and generally unknown species from southern Chile which forms a hardy, slow growing large shrub with leathery, evergreen, toothed foliage. The small crimson flowers are borne thickly on the younger stems and are scented of orange peel or something similar; a fine and interesting scent whatever your olfactory dept. does with it.

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Meconopsis x sheldonii

A very fine, reliably perennial, big blue poppy. Large rich-blue flowers in May. Moist, humus-rich soil in part shade, unless you live in the cool, rainy north, where you can grow it in full sun. Height 90cm.

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Melianthus comosus (new)

One of the hardiest Melianthus species, being generally found in the drier inland areas of South Africa, though perfectly amenable to cultivation in the UK, if not too desperately cold. The grey pinnate heavily serrated foliage is smaller than that of M. major and hairy. Clusters of red flowers with black nectar in summer, followed by inflated pods. Sun and well drained soil. 1.8m.

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Melianthus comosus (new)

One of the hardiest Melianthus species, being generally found in the drier inland areas of South Africa, though perfectly amenable to cultivation in the UK, if not too desperately cold. The grey pinnate heavily serrated foliage is smaller than that of M. major and hairy. Clusters of red flowers in summer, followed by inflated pods. Sun and well drained soil.

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Melianthus major

A stunning foliage plant with huge grey-blue serrated foliage like nothing else. Usually treated as herbaceous, but can be a woody shrub in mild areas. Plant in a sunny spot against a wall and mulch in winter, though I don't bother mulching and have no problems. Will make a plant 1.5 x 1.5m in one season, if happy and at its very best in autumn.

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Melianthus major

A stunning foliage plant with huge grey-blue serrated foliage like nothing else. Usually treated as herbaceous, but can be a woody shrub in mild areas. Plant in a sunny spot against a wall and mulch in winter, though I don't bother mulching and have no problems. Will make a plant 1.5 x 1.5m in one season, if happy and at its very best in autumn.

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Meliosma cuneifolia

An obscure summer flowering deciduous shrub, introduced originally by E.H. Wilson from W. China and fully hardy in cultivation. Making a large shrub with plumes of creamy-white flowers borne in July. The foliage is simple, bristle toothed and obovate, with clearly impressed veins.

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Metapanax davidii (new)

A hardy, slow growing evergreen large shrub from China and N Vietnam, bearing deep green leaves either entire or variably divided into two or three lobes and rather resembling an arborescent ivy. A shrub to about 3m high eventually, with a broad habit. Umbels of small green flowers in long terminal panicles, followed by black fruits.

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Metapanax delavayi (new)

An exciting hardy Schefflera relative from China forming an evergreen rounded shrub 3-4m high eventually, the leaves elegantly divided as Schefflera into distinct leaflets. Leaves often have five slim leaflets, but plants most often settle down to three in maturity. Terminal heads of irrelevant greenish flowers in August. Has taken -18c in the USA unscathed.

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Metasequoia glyptostroboides

A vigorous deciduous conifer of upright growth forming a spire like conical crown, with bright, lush green foliage turning a marvellous rich tawny-pink and old gold in autumn. Trunk becomes wonderfully fluted with cinnamon-brown bark. Caused a sensation when discovered in central China as recently as 1941. Virtually any soil or site, but better with moisture

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Microlepia strigosa (new)

Highly attractive and most unusual in the UK the 'Lace Fern' has downy light green fronds to 90cm tall. Evergreen in mild gardens, this will be deciduous for many, where it should be perfectly hardy. This has a broad distribution in the wild, from the Himalayas, Asia, Japan, etc. For a shaded, preferably sheltered site.

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Microlepia strigosa 'MacFaddeniae' (new)

Originating in a California garden, this highly ornamental form of the Asian 'Lace Fern' has fronds along the same lines of the Tatting fern, Athyrium filix-femina 'Frizelliae', though longer and potentially evergreen. Evergreen in mild gardens, this will be deciduous for many, where it should be perfectly hardy. For a shaded, preferably sheltered site.

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Millettia japonica 'Hime Fuji' (new)

A low climber or compact shrub for a warm wall with creamy-white wisteria-like flowers in late summer, though rare to flower apparently. The foliage is also rather wisteria-like but smaller and more compact which makes it, together with the scarcity of flowers, apparently highly desirable to the Bonsai nut. Very rarely seen in the UK.

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Miscanthus nepalensis Hardy form

A distinct species with truly LOVELY silky gold tinted flower heads and fluffy golden seed heads, unlike any other Miscanthus. The flowers are held on stems well clear of the foliage and the seed heads last through until spring. Height approx 1.5m. Some forms are not so hardy, but this one has come through the worst cold of the 2009 and 2010 winters with no problems.

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Miscanthus sinensis 'China'

Bold clump-forming grass. Large upright plumes of richly red-tinted flowers in late summer. Height 150cm. Sun or part shade.

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Miscanthus sinensis 'Kleine Fontäne'

Fine textured and compact to 1.5m tall, the silvery flowerheads are seen in late summer atop the upright stems. Makes good clumps of relatively slim foliage. Hardy, for sun or semi-shade.

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Miscanthus sinensis 'Morning Light'

Graceful white striped very slim foliage. Pink flower spikes in autumn, though mainly grown for spectacular foliage effect. Height 1.5m. Sun or part shade.

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Miscanthus sinensis var. condensatus 'Cosmo Revert'

A pure green leaved reversion from the variegated 'Cosmopolitan' and therefore a good bloomer with large open plumes opening copper-red in late summer above the broad foliage and reaching up to 3m high. A striking grass for the back of a border or as a visual statement, the leaves remaining green into winter. For sun or semi-shade.

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Miscanthus sinensis var. condensatus NJM 11.021

A collection of this large growing variety from 1800m on Leigongshan, Guizhou, China. Long, comparatively broad foliage, mid green with a central white pinstripe, arches out from the clump. The cream flowers rise distinctively high above the foliage in late summer to 2.5m. A striking variety, useful in the garden as a statement. For sun.

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Miscanthus transmorrisonensis (new)

From the high mountains of Taiwan this is a virtually evergreen species in our climate with elegant narrow arching foliage reaching 90cm high on an upright clump. Flowering stems rise clear of the foliage to about 2m, topped by arching pinky-white plumes of flower early in the Miscanthus season in July-Aug. Sun or semi-shade. Hardy.

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Molopospermum peloponnesiacum

An exceptional umbel from the mountains of central and southern Europe. Fairly large, glossy green, deeply and strikingly dissected ferny foliage emerges in early spring, followed by yellowish-white umbels of fragrant flowers on stems to 1.3m high in early summer. The seedheads are themselves attractive, bearing yellow seeds. For sun or semi-shade.

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Monarda 'Raspberry Wine'

A fine mildew resistant form with rich red-pink flowers over dark green highly aromatic foliage. Forms big clumps to 1.2m tall. The flowers are a magnet for butterflies. For any reasonable soil, not too bone dry in summer. Hardy, for sun or semi-shade.

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Morus cathayana (new)

Introduced by Ernest Wilson in 1907, this has remained a very rare tree in cultivation, though perfectly hardy. A handsome species on account of its large, heart shaped foliage, tipped with a slender point. Fruits usually ripen to black and reach 2.5cm long.

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Muehlenbeckia astonii

The Wiggy Wig bush from New Zealand is certainly obscure, but it's also unique and handsome, has one of the best common names ever, and makes a dense tangle of reddish-brown wiry, zigzag stems with miniscule heart shaped deciduous leaves, to about 2m or more. A coastal plant in nature, so excellent in exposure, this needs well drained soil.

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Muehlenbeckia complexa

Well known to anyone who frequents Cornish gardens, this fascinating twining climber forms amazing tangled masses of tiny evergreen leaves on wiry stems up to 6m high. Usually only seen in mild areas, this can be grown successfully in a sheltered position over a wide area of the UK. A mulch over the root stock ensures survival in a bad winter.

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Muehlenbeckia complexa 'Texture Big Leaf' (new)

A larger leaved form of this fascinating twining climber forming the usual amazing tangled masses of rounded evergreen leaves on wiry stems up to 6m high. Usually only seen in mild areas, this can be grown successfully in a sheltered position over a wide area of the UK. A mulch over the root stock ensures survival in an exceptionally bad winter.

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Muhlenbergia dumosa

One of the most beautiful of all grasses, but sadly not the hardiest, the Bamboo Muhly from Arizona to S. Mexico is suitable for milder areas or pot culture. Slim, well branched, arching stems to 1.2m move in the slightest breeze and are clad in exceptionally fine foliage, creating a billowing cloud like effect. Mine look mighty fine in pots juxtaposed with bold succulents etc.

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Mukdenia acanthifolia

A perfect example of weird naming, the leaves are the opposite shape to any Acanthus I know. With rounded, unlobed leaves this is quite distinct from M. rossii the only other species. Similar branched inflorescences of white saxifrage flowers rise to 40cm above the bright-green new foliage in spring, the latter turning to a butter colour in autumn. Semi-shade and humusy soil. Hardy.

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Mukdenia rossii 'Karasuba'

A selected form with the green palmate leaves turning red from the tips in late summer.. White saxifragaceous flowers in spring. Height 25cm. For a woodsy site in light shade. but if not too dry the colour is more pronounced with more sun

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Narcissus broussonetii MSF 652

An autumn flowering species from W. Morocco, producing multiple, distinctly long tubed, smallish, clove scented white flowers, usually up to five per 40cm stalk. One of the earliest of all the Narcissi and rarely seen in cultivation. This needs a mild climate to grow outside, but is very easy in a pot, given the shelter of a cold glasshouse.

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Neolitsea sericea

There can be few things more beautiful than this (no, really) when the new foliage emerges in spring. A Far Eastern member of the laurel family, making a medium to large evergreen shrub with oval foliage expanding in spring covered in incredible, silken, silvery-gold shining hairs, turning coppery before green, when the glaucous underside becomes apparent.

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Neolitsea sericea - from Korea

A Far Eastern member of the laurel family, making a medium to large evergreen shrub. In this form the oval foliage expands particularly pinky-red in spring, covered in silken, golden shining hairs, before becoming green, when the glaucous underside becomes apparent. The deeply impressed veins are a give-away as to its family. Cream flowers in autumn.

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Neopanax laetus

A Schefflera relative from New Zealand with magnificent foliage. Suited to mild areas, this is one of the finest foliage plants for such areas, bearing large glossy green foliage with five broad leathery leaflets, often overlapping each other. Branched heads of white flowers from deep pinkish purple buds, followed by orange-purple fruits. A large shrub.

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Nepeta govaniana

An unusual catmint from the Western Himalaya with graceful, fairly large, soft-yellow flowers produced over a long period in summer. Height 90cm. Part shade or sun, not too dry.

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Nerium oleander from Morocco

A collection of the wild Oleander from Tafraoute in the Anti Atlas mountains of Morocco. Large heads of deep-pink, periwinkle flowers from June to October, this will make a medium sized, rounded evergreen shrub for a sheltered site in full sun. Grows well in various parts of the UK nowadays and takes a fair amount of frost if sensibly sited. Great in a pot.

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Nothofagus betuloides (new)

The most southerly of the Chilean evergreen species, this forms a more compact, generally medium sized tree than the larger N. dombeyi or N. nitida, growing in columnar fashion when young and the leaves with a dentate rather than serrate margin. Particularly rare in the UK, this is a handsome thing. Not for chalk soils.

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Nothofagus cunninghamii (new)

A rarely seen evergreen species from the mountains of Tasmania and Australia, best suited to milder gardens. Forming a small evergreen tree with slim wiry branches and densely set tiny dark green leaves, often coppery on new growth. The dominant rainforest tree in Tasmania.

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Nothofagus menziesii

The Silver Beech from New Zealand, where it forms incredibly beautiful old trees in the pristine forests of Fiordland. In this country it is suited to the southern counties or anywhere on the Atlantic seaboard, where it will make a graceful, small to medium size evergreen tree with cherry-like bark and fairly rounded, small leaves, silvery when young. Very rarely seen.

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Nyssa leptophylla

A close relative of N. sinensis from Hunan, China and extremely rare in cultivation. This makes a hardy small tree with excellent red autumn colour and attractive, rich green pointed leaves that emerge with a red tint. Best autumn colour in a sunny position. For neutral to acid soil.

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Nyssa sinensis 'Jim Russell'

Selected at Arboretum Wespelaar, Belgium for reliable autumn colour. A Chinese counterpart to the N. American 'tupelo', N. sylvatica, this is mainly grown for its superb autumn colour, in this case from golden yellow through orange to poppy red. New growth is red tinted, maturing green, and leaves can reach 15cm long. Makes a small hardy tree for neutral to acid soil.

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Nyssa sylvatica 'Wisley Bonfire'

This is the superb, recently named clone of the American 'Tupelo' that has grown and been admired at Wisley gardens for many years. Strangely, often pictured in RHS publications as a normal Tupelo, it is very distinct from all others I have seen. Its crown form is very uniform, like that of a Japanese Pagoda, with superb autumn colour. Lime free soil.

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Oenanthe pimpinelloides (new)

Sometimes cultivated for the edible rounded tuberous roots, which taste of hazelnuts. These are great stir-fried in sesame oil. A perennial to about 80cm tall with umbels of white flowers in summer and finely divided foliage that emerges in winter. Previously sold as Bunium (which is completely confused in UK cultivation).

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Olearia lacunosa (new)

Very rarely obtainable, yet one of the finest of all Olearia and a striking and very distinctive foliage plant. Leaves are rigid, long and very narrow, deep green above with a prominent cream midrib; covered in a pale indumentum beneath. Small white flowers rarely produced in the UK. A medium sized shrub, requiring free drainage, not too dry and not arctic.

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Olearia macrodonta 'Minor' (new)

A dwarf form of the species, smaller in all its parts than the norm, but bearing the same fine features of this tough evergreen shrub from New Zealand. Sage-green foliage is spine edged and silvery-white beneath and the broad panicles of fragrant white flowers cover the plant in June. Superb in coastal exposure but just fine inland also. Hardy

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Onoclea sensibilis Copper form

The ununusal copper-red tinted form. An easy, hardy and very distinct fern from N America, spreading to form patches in moist ground. In this rare form the fronds emerge red tinted and turn bright-green later, retaining colour in the stalk. Easily kept under control in small gardens as the rhizomes are not deep.

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Ophiopogon chingii

A Japanese dwarf species, making low mounds of evergreen, narrow, linear, curly green foliage. Palest lavender-white flowers on short spikes in summer, followed by electric blue fruit. Essential ground cover in many Japanese gardens. Hardy.

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Opopanax chironium PAB 872 (new)

The Hercules all-heal or Sweet Myrrh from the Mediterranean makes a bold hardy perennial umbellifer with branched stems to about 1.8m high, bearing rounded heads of yellow flowers in June/July over a mound of bold attractive pinnate foliage with serrated leaflets. Summer dormant. This collection was from the Vigos Gorge, N. Greece.

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Osbeckia stellata NJM 13.058 (new)

From 1840m in Manipur, this 1m shrubby member of the Melastomataceae resembles a pink flowered Tibouchina in many ways. Flowering in late summer and autumn, the heads of pink flowers are set off by the foliage, with distinctive, longitudinal, deeply impressed veins. Should be tried outside in very mild areas, but otherwise overwintered as per Tibouchina.

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Osmanthus fragrans (new)

One of the finest evergreen shrubs for fragrance, the clusters of creamy flowers in summer are strongly and deliciously fragrant and very different in this respect to others in the genus. Unfortunately not the hardiest species, so best suited to milder gardens or excellent as a potted plant, overwintered with protection. The new foliage emerges purple.

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Osmanthus yunnanensis

Like no other in the genus, this is a magnificent, large, evergreen shrub (or small tree given half a century), with impressive long, dark, olive-green leaves, either bristle edged or entire, emerging rich purple in spring. The numerous small clusters of ivory-white, sweetly fragrant flowers are produced as early as Feb/March and smell of vanilla/playdough.

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Osteomeles subrotunda

A very rarely seen, but particularly pretty, small to medium sized evergreen shrub of slow growth from E China. Slim arching shoots are adorned with ferny pinnate leaves bearing tiny leaflets; a joy in themselves. The Hawthorn-like flowers in June are followed by reddish berries. In colder areas the protection of a wall is advised.

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Ozothamnus hookeri

A small evergreen shrub from SE Australia and Tasmania, related to Helichrysum, forming an upright or spreading small bush. The stems are clothed in white wool and the diminutive, aromatic, sticky leaves are closely pressed about them. Small heads of white flower clustered towards the ends of the shoots in summer. For a sunny, well drained position.

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Paeonia veitchii

A very hardy Chinese species with vivid pink single flowers up to 9cm across, two or more per stem, in May-June. The foliage is heavily dissected into deep narrow segments, giving an attractive textural effect after the flowers. Forms large dense clumps eventually, over a metre across. For an open sunny position in well drained soil.

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Paris incompleta (new)

Allied to our native P. quadrifolia, but an all round better garden plant, being stouter and more vigorous and having wider leaves in whorls of 7 to 11 leaflets, centred by larger yellow-green flowers on stalks above the leaves. Slow to establish, but with gently creeping rhizomes, this is best in woodsy humus rich soil in shade. From The Caucasus, Armenia and Turkey.

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Parrotia subaequalis

New to cultivation in the West, with its UK retail launch here at PGP in 2011, this Chinese species makes an upright tree 4-10m tall in the wild, with foliage that turns from green with purple margins to wine-red, then orange and finally orange-red in autumn; far more vivid than its cousin. Bark is superior too being green, beige, black and peeling off to white-green.

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Patrinia sp. from China

A tall attractive E Asian member of the valerian family. Multiple small flat heads of soft, pale-yellow, scented flowers, produced on a well branched scape to 1.8m tall in September. A tall plant with none of the harsh yellow normally associated with P. scabiosifolia. A hardy perennial that doesn't appreciate dry conditions.

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Paulownia kawakamii

A very unusual and highly endangered species from Taiwan; probably the finest species in flower. Very fast growing, drought tolerant, small deciduous tree best in full sun. Long panicles of large, lilac-blue foxglove-like flowers, heavily spotted inside, are borne on the bare branches in May. Typically huge leaves have an interesting sticky hairiness.

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Paulownia tomentosa W769

Brought back from the brink by Pan Global', this is the extra vigorous, large growing form Wilson originally introduced from W. Hupeh, China, which reached a whopping 26m at Westonbirt before its death in 1990, far bigger than is normally associated with this species. It also grew at Colesbourne, where this material was derived. Typical big leaves and lilac foxglove flowers.

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Peltaria alliacea

Garlic Cress in endemic to SE Europe where it inhabits open stony ground. Purple tinged glaucous foliage emerges early in late winter and masses of white flowers in loose panicles appear in early summer. The leaves are used culinarily to add a garlicky, mustardy kick to salads and are best harvested in spring and autumn. Height 70cm. Hardy.

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Peltoboykinia watanabei

Beautiful deep green, large, deeply lobed peltate leaves. Spikes of delicate cream flowers above the foliage in summer. Height 40cm. A splendid foliage plant for cool, moist shade.

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Pennisetum macrourum

Long, slim, whitish 'paint brush' flower spikes in late summer and autumn. Upright and clump forming. Height 1.5m. Warm, sunny position. A fine, bold, hardy grass from South Africa.

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Persicaria virginiana var. filiformis 'Guizhou Bronze'

From a collection made on the Loushan Pass, Guizhou, SW China, this has relatively broad foliage heavily suffused with bronze when young and with a brown chevron, turning to bronze tints again and then a good orangey-gold in autumn. Narrow spikes of small red flowers in October/November. Height 60 to 90cm.

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Philadelphus 'Casa Azul'

This was found as a seedling in my garden, growing between two Mexican parents. The ultimate size is not yet known but so far it appears to be a shrub to perhaps 2m. Particularly sweetly scented, cup shaped white flowers with a subtle central purple-red stain are borne in profusion in early summer over narrow, dainty foliage on exceptionally arching stems.

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Philadelphus coulteri

Another of the virtually unheard of Mexican species, yet one of the most attractive. This one makes an arching shrub, so far to about 1.8m in my garden, with big, flat, scented white flowers in summer. A particular feature is the whitish-grey hairy underside to the leaves. Most rare and frankly rather desirable.

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Philadelphus delavayi f. melanocalyx B&L 12168

Much sought after, this form of this already superb species has dark-purple calyxes behind the pure white petals. The flowers are sweetly and heavily scented and are produced in dense racemes in June. Makes a large deciduous shrub for sun or semi-shade. This is a particularly fine clone with graphite tones in the new growth. Easy and hardy.

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Philadelphus maculatus 'Mexican Jewel'

A fine selection of this small, hardy, deciduous shrub from the high mountains of Mexico. Intensely sweet, unarguably bubble-gum scented white flowers with red-purple centres borne in June. This superior clone was collected and named by Martyn Rix, that fine botanist and altogether nice chap from Devon. The scent from this eclipses any other species.

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Philadelphus maculatus 'Scented Storm'

Another selected form of this hardy, deciduous shrub from the high mountains of Mexico, this time with small cross shaped flowers. Intensely sweet, unarguably bubble-gum scented white flowers with red-purple centres borne in June. Reaches about 2m tall with arching stems and small slim leaves. Best in lean soil in sun to keep growth compact.

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Philadelphus madrensis F&M 326

Most (all?) stock of this species in UK cultivation is in fact P. maculatus. Here we have the real thing, that we found in Durango State, Mexico, which differs in its pure white flowers and lightly toothed foliage. Masses of extremely sweetly scented white flowers in early summer on a shrub to only 1m in the wild, though in cultivation will probably reach 1.5 to 2m.

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Philadelphus mexicanus 'Rose Syringa'

A highly desirable semi-evergreen species deserving the shelter of a wall or protected corner. Beautiful exquisitely fragrant creamy white flowers with a purple central blotch fade to soft yellow, borne in June/July. This can become magnificently large, growing like a climbing rose over lesser things, or up walls if supported. A parent of 'Belle Etoile' etc.

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Philadelphus palmeri

From the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains in NE Mexico and neighbouring Texas and Arizona, this very rare little evergreen 'Mock Orange' makes a small shrub with arching branches up to about 1m high, with sweetly scented white flowers in June. For sun or semi-shade in most soils.

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Philadelphus purpurascens

A most desirable species of 'Mock Orange', rarely seen, forming a shrub to about 2m with arching branches covered in clusters of sweetly scented white flowers with contrasting purple calyces in June. This is similar to P. delavayi var. melanocalyx but the calyces are slightly more of a red-purple than any of the clones I have of the former. Easy and hardy.

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Phillyrea angustifolia

A medium sized, compact evergreen shrub for a sunny site and drought tolerant with it. Slender dark green foliage and large amounts of small fragrant, cream flowers in clusters along the branches in May and June. Ideal for seaside gardens but hardy and easy inland. Related to the olive but hardier and giving a similar mediterranean feel.

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Phillyrea angustifolia 'French Fries'

Originally released here, this is my own selected form from a collection made in southern France with exceptionally narrow, very pretty foliage. A medium sized evergreen shrub with large amounts of small, fragrant, cream flowers in clusters along the branches in May and June. Very drought tolerant. It is, I believe, the true forma rosmarinifolia.

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Phillyrea latifolia

A very characterful small evergreen tree for Mediterranean effect. A rounded, dense, bushy tree or large shrub, enhanced by the small, black-green, leathery foliage contrasting with pale beige bark. Small white flowers in spring are borne profusely. Much used in period plantings. Hardy and drought tolerant. It's difficult to describe quite how good this is.

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Phlomis 'Toob'

This came to me as P. angustifolia, which is a synonym of P. fruticosa. Its true identity is unclear; it needs a name, so I've given it one for the wonderful foliage texture it possesses, having soft grey-green leaves longitudinally in-rolled to show very pale grey undersides. Yellow flowers in early summer. A small evergreen shrub for sun and drainage.

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Phlomis bourgaei NJM 10.007

Collected in SW Turkey near Kalkan at 664m alt, this unusual species has broad green foliage in winter. In the Med' summer heat twisted, thickly golden-brown-hairy leaves replace the winter leaves after the yellow flowers have appeared in June, but in the UK we keep the broad winter leaves and get either grey or sand yellow tints. For sunny well drained sites.

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Phlomis bourgaei NJM 12.008 (new)

Collected in SW Turkey near Sariyer at 678m alt, this unusual species has broad green foliage in winter. In the Med' summer heat twisted, thickly golden-brown or pale grey hairy leaves replace the winter leaves after the yellow flowers have appeared in June, but in the UK we keep the broad winter leaves and get either grey or sand yellow tints. For sunny well drained sites.

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Phlomis bourgaei NJM 12.015

Collected in SW Turkey near Sinneli at 1100m alt, this unusual species has broad green foliage in winter. In the Med' summer heat twisted, thickly golden-brown-hairy leaves replace the winter leaves after the yellow flowers have appeared in June, but in the UK we keep the broad winter leaves and get either grey or sand yellow tints. For sunny well drained sites.

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Phlomis bourgaei NJM 12.020

Collected in SW Turkey on Alaca Dag at 1100m alt, this unusual species has broad green foliage in winter. In the Med' summer heat twisted thickly golden-brown-hairy leaves replace the winter leaves after the yellow flowers have appeared in June, but in the UK we keep the broad winter leaves and get either grey or sand yellow tints. For sunny well drained sites.

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Phlomis grandiflora NJM 10.014

A potentially large species, rarely seen in cultivation but as hardy as P. fruticosa. This is common in SW Turkey where I found it making huge mounds of pale grey foliage up to 1.8m high by 3m across, but usually smaller. Masses of bright yellow flowers in early summer on long stalks held high above the foliage. For a sunny well drained position.

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Phlomis grandiflora NJM 12.005

A potentially large species, rarely seen in cultivation but as hardy as P. fruticosa. This is common in SW Turkey where I found it making huge mounds of pale grey foliage up to 1.8m high by 3m across, but usually smaller. Masses of bright yellow flowers in early summer on long stalks held high above the foliage. For a sunny well drained position.

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Phlomis longifolia

An evergreen shrubby species with rich green, narrow, deeply veined foliage and whorls of deep yellow flowers, with a hint of brownish sandy-yellow on the upper portion, seen in summer. Makes a small rounded shrub for a sunny well drained position.

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Photinia sp. NJM 09.097 (new)

An evergreen shrub to small tree in the wild, with red berries in autumn, collected form Fan Si Pan Mt., N. Vietnam at 2045m asl. Species unknown as yet. Try this in a sheltered spot.

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Photinia villosa var. laevis

One of the finest plants we can grow for autumn colour, this Eastern Asian deciduous species forms a small tree with a wide spreading crown. Clusters of Hawthorn-like flowers in May are followed by bright red egg shaped fruits which add to the end of season display. Leaves turn to a dazzling orange, red or yellow in autumn. Not for thin chalk.

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Phyllostachys aureosulcata 'Aureocaulis'

An excellent very hardy bamboo for general garden use in sun, providing a colourful and manageable specimen. Very upright culms with occasional, characteristic zigzag bases emerge pale yellow and turn to a rich golden yellow, temporarily reddening on the sunny side, and reach about 4m in height. Potentially running, so use rhizome barrier. To about 4.5m tall.

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Phyllostachys aureosulcata 'Spectabilis'

Widely available and deservedly so, this is a very colourful and very hardy plant with a mass of strongly upright, golden-yellow culms that have an alternating green groove, and occasionally have a zigzag base. The culms temporarily blush red on the sunny side, and the foliage is rich green. Potentially running, so use rhizome barrier. To about 4.5m tall. Best in sun.

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Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Castillonii'

A beautiful bamboo with thick culms in bright yellow with alternating deep green patches making a striking contrast, up to 4.5m high. One of the most colourful bamboos, and truly spectacular when well grown in full sun. Colours much stronger on older plants. Perfectly hardy. Usually loosely clump forming, but potentially running in very warm gardens.

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Phyllostachys dulcis

For those wanting to create a real grove of big, thick culms quickly, this is your plant. Still a rarity, this species has the ability to throw up very beefy green culms with white bands at each node from an early age, creating a thicket of tall, leafy shoots up to 6m. The young shoots are delicious (dulcis meaning sweet), so a good choice for the vegetable garden. Best in full sun.

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Phyllostachys nigra

'Black Bamboo'. Hardly needs an introduction; the unique and well known favourite, making a gracefully arching upright clump to about 3m high. Culms often green in their first year, becoming jet black. Not overly vigorous for a Phyllostachys with limited spread at the root; easy to control. Loves sun, heat and rain. Perfectly hardy.

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Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis

The big green brother of 'Black Bamboo'. A strong growing, very tall bamboo with big, thick green culms and masses of small leaves, densely set, giving a particularly attractive appearance. Tighter in cool northern areas, but could form an impressive grove in hot places in the south. Up to 6m high and very hardy. Best in full sun. One of my favourites.

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Phyllostachys vivax 'Aureocaulis'

Me oh my, I love this bamboo. Truly marvellous, and jaw droppingly impressive when one encounters a mature specimen, which doesn't take long from a small plant, as the huge thick culms seem to arise from nowhere. They are golden yellow with occasional green stripes, and the foliage is rich green, elegantly drooping and held high. Up to 6m. Vigorous.

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Phymatosorus diversifolius (new)

From Australia and New Zealand this Polypodium relative is sometimes found as an epiphyte on imported tree fern trunks. Can form impressive colonies as a climbing plant on trees, banks or walls in mild areas, even up to 5m off the ground. Glossy evergreen fronds are either simple, as juveniles, or pinnatifid, as adult. Not tried outside here yet but fine in an unheated polytunnel.

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Phymosia umbellata

An Abutilon relative from Mexico, making a medium sized shrub with sumptuous deepest blood-red flowers with paler interiors, in this form. The petals are perfectly placed together to form a clean open funnel. The vine-like foliage is lightly hairy and slightly grey-green. Totally untouched by cold in a very frosty unheated polytunnel here, so obviously has some hardiness.

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Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii 'Variegata'

A form of Chinese Lanterns with variegated foliage, forming a low mound of foliage, covered in autumn with vivid red-orange lanterns which make fine dried arrangements especially around Halloween. For a well drained position.

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Phytolacca americana

The Pokeweed from the USA makes a rather striking herbaceous plant to about 2m tall, the stems branching widely to make a sizable specimen. Racemes of white or pink flowers are followed by shiny black fruit on pink stalks. This plant is as toxic as various other commonly grown garden plants and should be treated with respect.

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Picrasma quassioides

A very rare and ornamental Asian, small, hardy, easily grown tree with attractive pinnate foliage turning bright yellow, orange or scarlet in autumn, contrasting with the bunches of pea-sized fruit that start red and turn metallic slate-blue.

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Pileostegia viburnoides

A highly neglected evergreen climber with handsomely held dark green, glossy, simple foliage setting off the frothy panicles of creamy-white flowers in late summer/autumn. Easy and floriferous, if a little slow growing, on virtually all soils in sun or shade. Can reach 6m on a suitable wall or tree trunk, but is easy to keep much smaller.

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Pimpinella sp. PAB 6112

From Leigong Shan, Guizhou, SW China, we found this umbellifer at altitude forming diffuse umbels of white flowers on stems to 1.2m high from a basal clump of foliage. Flowering in late-summer/autumn over a long period.

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Pimpinella tripartita PAB 7261 (new)

Collected in Georgia, this pretty little umbel reaches about 60cm tall, though can be a little larger, and thrives in dry shade or full sun. Even better than that it flowers twice a year if happy, in May and September. Rounded, lobed and serrated foliage and wiry stems topped by airy, dainty white umbels. Perennial, but self seeds easily. Good for naturalising.

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Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii

This hardy Mexican species forms a large tree with a spreading crown and fairly long, slender, glaucous needles, making a handsome specimen. In this variety the banana-like, fragrant resin smeared cones have extremely reflexed scales and reach huge proportions, especially when dry and open; one I have on my windowsill is 30cm x 12cm.

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Pinus bhutanica KR 10358 (new)

An extremely rare close relative of P. wallichiana, with the blue-green foliage more starkly pendulous, somewhat in the style of P. patula, on spreading, drooping, sinuous branches. These represent a recent collection from Arunachal Pradesh. Trees from Bhutan have proven hardy in the UK over the last 20 years or so (even 2010) and are most beautiful.

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Pinus cembroides NJM 09.022a

The Mexican nut pine is characteristic of much of the drier areas of Mexico and makes a relatively small tree or large shrub with a low domed crown and a short trunk. The nuts of this tree are large and delicious and are sold in Mexican markets, indeed these very trees were raised from a bag bought in Galeana, Nuevo Leon, collected from local wild trees.

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Pinus patula

A gorgeous Mexican pine with the most beautiful drooping, fairly long bright-green needles, hanging from the branches in curtains. The bark is reddish brown and the branches wide spreading, though the tree is never very large in this country. So wonderful I've planted one in the nursery in a prominent position. Perfectly hardy, but not in the very coldest areas.

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Pinus sylvestris 'Edwin Hillier' (new)

An old Hillier selection of the Scots Pine with particularly beautiful silvery blue-green foliage. The younger bark is classically orange tinted, which contrasts superbly with the foliage. A variably sized tree for any soil. Height depends on soil and exposure but usually medium to large.

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Pinus x holfordiana

A hybrid between P. wallichiana and P. ayacahuite, raised at Westonbirt arboretum near here in 1904. It has made magnificent specimens at the arboretum which share characteristics of both parents. A tall vigorous tree with semi-pendulous grey-green foliage and long banana-like, resinous cones when mature. A rarity worthy of inclusion in any arboretum.

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Pistacia terebinthus NJM 10.004

My collection of the Chian turpentine Tree from SW Turkey, where this drought tolerant large shrub or small tree was found at the southernmost edge of the Taurus mountains at approx 1000m alt. Try this in full sun and well drained soil and perhaps against a sunny wall, where autumn colour of the pinnate foliage should be a beautiful pale orange-red.

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Pittosporum daphniphylloides

A large evergreen shrub from China and Taiwan, with bold leathery foliage up to 23cm long and dense rounded clusters of sweetly scented, soft-yellow, small flowers in spring. Hardy, even through very hard winters, but enjoys a little shelter. Given a few decades and a good site this can reach small tree size. Rarely encountered.

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Pittosporum glabratum (new)

An evergreen Chinese species, very rarely seen in cultivation, up to 1.8m high with dark green foliage, tapered at both ends, and very fragrant soft yellow flowers seen in May. Seed capsules split to reveal bright red seeds in autumn. For a sheltered position, though actually really rather hardy.

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Pittosporum heterophyllum

An unusual S.W. Chinese species with slim evergreen foliage and clusters of sweetly scented cream and softest yellow flowers in early summer. Makes a bushy shrub to about 2m high, hardy in most areas; the Asian members of this genus are usually hardier than their Australasian counterparts. Best in sun.

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Pittosporum illicioides var. angustifolium

From the mountain forests of Taiwan, this extremely elegant evergreen shrub is one of the finer introductions of recent years. Long very thin dark green leaves up to 20cm in length arch out from the stems and reach their longest in light shade, though the plant is happy in full sun. Fragrant pale yellow flowers on long thin curved stalks in June. To about 2m tall?

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Pittosporum illicioides var. illicioides PAB 9004

Found by us on Shirui Peak, Manipur, NE India at nearly 2400m asl, this evergreen made medium sized shrubs with Celastrus-like seed heads splitting to reveal orange seeds in autumn. These were preceded by clusters of highly fragrant, evening scented pale-yellow flowers in June. This variety has ovate foliage. For a sheltered position.

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Pittosporum omeiensis VdL 80626

A collection by Harry van de Lar on Emei shan, Sichuan, China. This evergreen shrub has dark shiny green oblanceolate foliage clustered towards the ends of the branchlets. Terminal clusters of sweetly scented yellow flowers are seen in summer. Proven hardy to considerable cold in a reasonably sheltered position, grow this in sun or semi-shade.

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Pittosporum patulum (new)

A most unusual hardy species from New Zealand, very rarely available, with an upright habit to 4.5m high. Juvenile foliage is brown-purple tinged, very narrow, up to 5cm long and conspicuously lobed, turning to entire or toothed and up to 12cm in the adult stage. Small fragrant, bell shaped, crimson flowers in terminal clusters in summer. A distinctive foliage plant.

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Pittosporum ralphii 'Variegatum'

A surprisingly hardy medium sized, slow growing, evergreen shrub from New Zealand with grey-green leaves broadly margined with creamy-white. Clusters of dark crimson flowers with yellow anthers contrast with the foliage in summer. For any well drained soil in sun. Very rarely offered for sale.

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Platanus orientalis var. insularis

A highly attractive and underused form of Oriental Plane. Smaller growing than the usual, this will make a vigorous small to medium sized tree with very deeply lobed leaves, the lobes looking like long fingers on an outstretched hand, forming a unique foliage effect. Very tough, very different, easy and tolerant. Deserves far wider planting.

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Platycrater arguta

Pretty new on the scene, this hardy woody member of the Hydrangea family hails from Japan and China and in flower shows affinities to Philadelphus and Deutzia. A small deciduous shrub up to about a metre or more high, with long slim willowy leaves and terminal clusters of white flowers with a large boss of yellow stamen. For sun or semi-shade.

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Plectranthus effusus var. longitubus (new)

Formerly Rabdosia, this Japanese woodlander reaches its peak in autumn when long tubed lilac flowers are formed en-masse in airy inflorescences at the top of 90cm stems. For shade or semi-shade. Hardy.

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Pleione Tolima gx 'Moorhen' (new)

A beautiful easy little orchid with comparatively big shocking magenta flowers with red spotted throats in late winter before the leaves emerge. Overwinter dry-ish in a cold glasshouse or cool windowsill, place outside for the summer and keep moist. Clumps up very quickly to form potfuls. Height 10cm.

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Podocarpus macrophyllus (new)

Native of the Far East, this is one of the hardiest of all Podocarps, withstanding heavy frosts if sited well. Leaves long leathery and narrow, usually up to 13cm, but up to 18cm on vigorous shoots, green above and glaucous beneath. An evergreen shrub or small tree given enough time. Lime tolerant but not suited to chalk.

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Podocarpus salignus Hardy form (new)

From Chile comes this noble evergreen tree, related to the conifers, but with egg shaped fleshy fruits. A medium sized tree eventually with superb rich-green, long, narrow, almost willow-like foliage loading the branches. Elegant and with an exotic appearance, this form has proved hardy in a cold inland Cumbrian (!) garden over many years, given reasonable shelter.

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Podocarpus totara (new)

A mighty tree in its native New Zealand, this makes a fine specimen in the Far South West at least, where the largest old specimen in the UK is known to be 19m tall with a substantial trunk. Further East it is much smaller and survives considerable cold if well sheltered. Stiff, leathery, sharply pointed foliage in two ranks or scattered on the shoot.

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Podophyllum 'Spotty Dotty' (new)

Large parasols of foliage with lobed margins, heavily spotted and marked with dark brown dots, especially on emergence. Fairly large dark-red flowers hang under the foliage in May and June. A superb foliage plant for shade or semi-shade in woodsy, not too dry soil. Protect from slugs and snails as the plant emerges in spring. Height 45cm.

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Podophyllum peltatum

Handsome foliage emerges brown tinted and forms highly attractive, very deeply lobed parasols to 45cm. Beautiful, nodding, cupped white flowers among the foliage in spring, followed by elongated red-orange seed pods. A fine eastern N. American perennial where it forms drifts of impressive foliage in deciduous woodland. For shade and humusy soil. Hardy.

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Podophyllum pleianthum (new)

Particularly striking, potentially very large flattish topped slightly glossy green foliage with variably lobed margins and ciliate margins (very finely toothed). The leaf stalks combine as flower stems and the fat clusters of deepest red rounded flowers appear beneath the leaves, necessitating investigation. To 60cm tall or more, for humus rich soil in shade. Marvellous.

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Polygonatum odoratum 'Dusky Bere' (new)

A form of Solomon's Seal with a subtle dusky brownish-purple wash to the new foliage in spring and the usual white flowers in late spring. Lower growing than 'Betberg'. Clumps up well in good soil, light shade.

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Polygonatum odoratum 'Georgia' PAB 8345 (new)

A short (30cm) Solomon's Seal found in Georgia with white flowers in early summer. Clumps up well in good soil in light shade.

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Polygonatum punctatum

A small species with distinctly purple spotted stems and equally purple spotted white pitcher-shaped flowers, giving a pale pink effect, followed by bright red berries. The berries are persistent and can overwinter on the evergreen stems to mingle with the new spring flowers. Height to 30cm. For a humusy shaded site.

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Polygonatum verticillatum (new)

An unusual Solomon's Seal with little lilac-white bells in early summer, dangling from the arching stems, clad in very narrow foliage. This is a tall form. Height 1.5m. Reasonable soil in shade.

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Polygonatum yunnanense (new)

Clumps or arching stems to 30cm with glossy green, prominently veined foliage and dangling clusters of green tinted cream flowers from the axils of each leaf. Previously regarded a synonym of P. nodosum, this has recently been shown to be incorrect. Shade and humus.

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Polypodium 'Whitley Giant'

Previously very obscure, but now getting about a bit, this is close to P. cambricum, though has longer and broader fronds, making for a very handsome polypody. Pinnatifid fronds to 40cm from a gently creeping rootstock, eventually forming a nice patch. For reasonably well drained, even rocky soil in semi-shade.

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Polypodium scouleri (new)

A most unusual species with thick textured, leathery, shiny, dark-green fronds. Forms a good clump in time with a height of about 30cm. Rarely seen but perfectly hardy in inland UK and excellent in maritime areas, as it is in the wild state on the very coastal fringe of N. America from B.C. to Baja. For a shaded site.

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Polyspora axillaris (new)

A collection from 2000m in the mountain forests of Taiwan, where this forms an evergreen tree. Here in cultivation it will be smaller growing, to perhaps large shrub size. Large thick textured evergreen foliage to 15cm long form the backdrop to large Camellia-like flowers, white with golden yellow centres, seen in autumn. For a sheltered position in lime free soil.

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Polystichum biaristatum (new)

Ranging from N. India to Taiwan, this evergreen species is particularly rarely seen in cultivation. Rather elegant fronds are held on narrow upright stipes and range from 70 to 90cm in length. Hardiness unknown.

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Polystichum polyblepharum

An impressive Japanese evergreen fern with very glossy, rich-green, divided fronds, beautiful when unfurling in the spring covered in golden bristles. Ht 60cm. Shade/semi-shade in humusy, well-drained soil.

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Polystichum setiferum 'Cristatopinnulum' (new)

A very old form of our native Soft shield fern found in Dorset in 1878. The tough but feathery, heavily divided fronds have little fan shaped pinnules and reach up to 90cm high. Rarely offered.

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Polystichum setiferum 'Plumosomultilobum'

A wonderful fern. Incredibly dense, extremely divided, soft feathery fronds, quite fabulous in spring as they unfurl. The fronds on mature plants stack up on one another and head off in different directions, creating a wonderful specimen. Easy in any well drained, fairly good soil in shade/semi-shade.

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Polystichum setiferum 'Plumosum-Bevis'

Until very recently this was a very expensive rarity. Now the wonders of micro-propagation have brought you these. One of the finest of all ferns, with incredibly elegant, dark-green, uniformly and perfectly divided fronds, ending in a drawn out, tapering tip, arching out from the crown. Ht up to 120cm. Easy in any well drained, good soil in semi-shade/shade.

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Polystichum xiphophyllum (new)

Not often seen in cultivation, yet easily grown in acid or alkaline conditions, this hardy evergreen fern from India, China and Taiwan bears glossy, lance shaped, hard textured fronds on a plant 30 to 45cm tall. The silvery green patina to the fronds is distinctive and attractive. For a semi-shaded position in humusy soil.

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Poncirus trifoliata (new)

'Japanese Bitter Orange'. A remarkable, stout, slow growing, medium sized, hardy shrub closely related to Citrus, with armoured green stems and beautiful, white, sweetly scented, orange blossom like flowers in spring. Fruit like little yellow oranges produced after hot summers, or if planted in a very warm spot. Sun, well drained soil.

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Populus glauca KR 3993 (new)

This very rare tree was originally collected in Yunnan by Keith Rushforth. Striking in foliage with large, rounded, blue-green leaves with red veins on flattened red petioles, emerging fairly late in late spring. Vigorous and hardy, this will make a medium sized tree for most soils.

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Populus glauca MF 20088 (new)

This very rare tree was originally collected in the Gaoligongshan, NW Yunnan. Striking in foliage with large, rounded, blue-green leaves with red veins on flattened red petioles, emerging fairly late in late spring/early summer. Vigorous and hardy, this will make a medium sized tree for most soils.

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Populus lasiocarpa Hermaphrodite form (new)

A form collected by Ernest Wilson with polygamous catkins. An ornamental medium sized Chinese tree with huge leaves often up to 30cm long, with conspicuous red veins and leaf stalks. Nothing like the huge hybrid Poplars we are so used to seeing in our river valleys, these will form smaller, dome shaped trees. Plants can be coppiced to produce huge foliage.

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Populus purdomii

Described as "extremely rare in cultivation" by Grimshaw in New Trees, this Chinese species makes a healthy, upright, but relatively slow growing tree in cultivation. Leaves are fairly large and emerge red flushed in May, after frosts have passed, retaining a red petiole through the season. Young trees at the Hillier Gardens look distinctive, stylish and handsome.

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Populus x wilsocarpa 'Beloni'

As the name suggests, a hybrid between two ornamental, large leaved Chinese species, P. wilsonii and P. lasiocarpa, sharing characters of both. Not a vast tree, though strong growing, forming an upright conical crown when young, this has thick shoots and big heart shaped leaves up to 25x18cm. Hardy and suited to any normal or wet soil.

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Potentilla micrantha 'Purple Haze'

Found a few years ago in Albania, this February flowering ground covering perennial has strawberry-like flowers; white with a pink base. The foliage starts pale purple and darkens with age. Happy in full sun or deep dry shade, the choice is yours.

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Pourthiaea aff. arguta KR 10738 (new)

Collected in Arunachal Pradesh, Far NE India, this Rosaceous large shrub to small tree is very closely allied to Photinia and is also known as that. Creamy white flowers in terminal corymbs in spring/summer followed by red fruit in autumn. Leaves are relatively narrow, sprinkled with white hair when young and semi-persistent in winter. Hardiness untested.

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Primula 'Ingram's Blue'

A fine old polyanthus variety with deepest violet blue flowers with yellow eyes in spring. Easy.

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Prosartes lanuginosa

Yellow Fairy Bells from the Appalachian Mountains of eastern N. America is very closely related to Disporum from Asia and like it enjoys a semi-shaded position in humus rich soil. Branched leafy stems rise to about 75cm and bear terminal, flared, filigree, soft-yellow trumpets in late spring, followed by red berries. Hardy.

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Prunus himalaica (new)

Closely related to both P. serrula and P. rufa, this is also grown for its wonderful bark; deep mahogany with very heavy horizontal lenticel banding creating a striking effect. A small tree, introduced from Nepal in only 1965, this usually branches low into multiple stems; all the better for seeing the bark effects. Softly hairy serrated foliage and pale flowers in spring.

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Prunus ilicifolia subsp. lyonii (new)

The Catalina cherry hails from the Channel Islands off the coast of Southern California where it grows with such delights as Lyonothamnus etc. An evergreen large shrub with glossy foliage and racemes of white flowers in June/July up to 13cm long, followed by rounded fruit, starting red and turning black. For a sheltered position. Rarely seen or offered.

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Prunus lusitanica ssp azorica

A superb, rarely encountered, surprisingly hardy evergreen large shrub or small tree from the Azores. Larger, thicker leaves than normal Portuguese Laurel, reddish when young, turning a brighter green with red petioles, and with the same pretty racemes of white flowers in June. Tolerant of most soils. A very pleasing foliage plant, demanding wider planting.

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Prunus phaeosticta NJM 10.072 (new)

From the top of Tay Con Linh Mountain, N. Vietnam, a place probably no other Westerners have been, from where you can look straight into China. A small evergreen tree. the glossy foliage emerging bright pink-red with deeply impressed veins and a drip-tip. Masses of white flowers in upright racemes. Untried here, but best sheltered I'm sure.

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Prunus serrula x serrulata

With the superb glistening polished mahogany coloured bark of P. serrula, this hybrid benefits from a resistance to witches brooms in the branches, which P. serrula is prone to. A small, but vigorous hardy tree with willowy foliage and white flowers in spring.

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Prunus sp. NJM 13.108 (new)

Found at 1950m in Nagaland, NE India, this was a deciduous tree to 13m tall. Foliage is fairly substantial for a cherry. Flowers unseen.

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Pseudolarix amabilis (new)

A very attractive slow growing, very hardy, deciduous Chinese conifer superficially similar to Larch, but with longer thicker leaves bright, light green all summer, turning a striking rich golden-yellow in autumn. The little cones that stud the branches resemble small artichokes. Potentially a medium sized tree.

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Pseudopanax crassifolius f. trifoliolatus (new)

Most unusual and totally bizarre, this is a three lobed form of a bizarre looking plant at the best of times. Each dark-brown tinged rigid leaf is composed of three very narrow, linear lobes. These are produced around the slim vertical narrow stem, to about 5m, when the plant will enter adult stage and broaden its crown. Fairly hardy but not for the coldest areas.

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Pseudotaxus chienii (new)

The White Berried Yew is now almost an endangered species in its wild Chinese home and as yet extremely scarce here in cultivation in the UK. This makes a shrub or small tree 2 to 5m in the wild with dark green yew-like foliage, but with white-bands on leaf undersides, and deep red-brown bark. Translucent white berries are borne on female specimens. Hardy.

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Pteris umbrosa (new)

Similar in general appearance, but larger and more elegant than Pteris cretica, this rarely seen evergreen fern from E. Australia has spreading fronds, the pinnae (leaflets) very slim and long. Usually grown as a pot plant overwintered under cover, this actually has a fair degree of hardiness and experimentation could be undertaken in sheltered well drained spots.

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Pterocarya fraxinifolia 'Abbotsbury Giant'

Cuttings from one of the particularly huge specimens at Abbotsbury Subtropical gardens in Dorset, where they are considerably larger than any other specimens in the British Isles. A vigorous tough, tolerant tree from the Caucasus to N. Iran with pinnate foliage up to 60cm long and female inflorescences up to 50cm. Loves wet sites, but isn't demanding of them.

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Pterocarya fraxinifolia NJM 13.007 (new)

A collection from the rich Hyrcanian forests of Azerbaijan. A vigorous tough, tolerant, large deciduous tree from the Caucasus to N. Iran with pinnate foliage up to 60cm long and female inflorescences up to 50cm. Loves wet sites, but isn't demanding of them. Hardy and easy in most positions.

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Pterocarya macroptera var. insignis

Otherwise known as P. insignis, this is a magnificent new addition to our gardens and arboreta. From China comes this large, very vigorous, hardy deciduous tree. One of the 'wingnuts', it bears pinnate foliage to 45cm long and dangling infructescences to a whopping 70cm. Best in a site that doesn't dry out excessively, this species doesn't appear to sucker.

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Pterocarya tonkinensis (new)

Extremely rare in cultivation, these are the first ever sold and distributed in the UK of this Wingnut from Southern China and neighbouring countries. A large tree, similar to P. stenoptera that can intergrade with it in the wild. Grows well in Edinburgh, but will no doubt grow more vigorously further south. Naturally a moisture lover, but tolerant of drier sites.

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Pterocarya x rehderiana 'Fernleaf'

Raised in a batch of seedlings by Geoff Locke, this is a truly exceptional form of Wingnut. The normally Ash like pinnate leaves are 3 times or more divided, to the point of looking like a plumose fern frond. Very long drooping catkins followed by winged fruit. Particularly free growing, making a large tree. Very tolerant and easy, but best in moist-ish soil.

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Pterostyrax psilophyllus var. leveillei (new)

This stumped us in Guizhou with its unusual and striking trilobed leaves. A vigorous Chinese deciduous tree, producing masses of small white flowers in pendulous panicles up to 15cm long in June on almost bare branches. Reaching 10m or more in cultivation, this is the rarest member of this very small genus in cultivation, even more so in this form.

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Pulmonaria 'Diana Clare'

A very highly rated form with excellent long slim silver foliage and striking blue-purple flowers in spring. Height 30cm. for shade or semi-shade in not too overly dry soil.

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Pycnanthemum muticum

The Mountain Mint is indeed a member of the mint family and hails from eastern N. America. An aromatic non-running perennial with leafy stems to about 90cm, topped by heads of pale-pink Monarda-esque flowers surrounded by silvery-grey leafy bracts. For a semi-shade position, but stands full sun well if not too dry. Butterflies love it and leaves can be used for tea.

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Pyracantha angustifolia KR 2481

Not suffering from the scabby fruit problem that P. coccinea is afflicted with, this rarely seen species from China makes a medium sized tough, evergreen shrub to about 2.5m high. Very distinct with its narrow oblong leaves, grey-hairy beneath, this has typical hawthorn like flowers followed by masses of yellow-orange fruit, lasting well into winter.

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Pyrus elaeagnifolia 'Silver Sails' (new)

A particularly silvery leaved form of this tough small tree from SE Europe and Turkey with lance shaped leaves folding in at the margins. One of the finest species for silver foliage effect, but rarely planted. A whole lot nicer than the dumpy P. salicifolia 'Pendula'.

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Pyrus pashia

Found on Reiek Peak, Mizoram, NE India, this collection of this handsome Himalayan and W Chinese pear has particularly multi-lobed leaves on juvenile plants or vigorous shoots. A small round headed tree with handsome foliage, red-anthered white flowers, pink-flushed in bud in spring and brown rounded fruits to 2.5cm across with paler speckles.

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Quercus acutissima subsp. kingii NJM 13.077 (new)

A recent collection from Manipur of this extremely rare oak, endemic to the Western part of the species range, in the Eastern Himalaya etc. A fast growing tree to perhaps 12m tall in the wild. Glossy green leaves are up to 20cm long with multiple, closely set parallel veins ending in sharp forward pointing bristle tipped teeth.

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Quercus acutissima subsp. kingii PAB 7957 (new)

A recent collection from Manipur of this extremely rare oak, endemic to the Western part of the species range, in the Eastern Himalaya etc. A fast growing tree to perhaps 12m tall in the wild. Glossy green leaves are up to 20cm long with multiple, closely set parallel veins ending in sharp forward pointing bristle tipped teeth.

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Quercus alba

The NE American 'White oak' makes a bold specimen in this country, though is unjustifiably rare. Forming a medium sized tree with impressive deeply lobed foliage, expanding with a hint of red on new growth, and then turning to wonderful, deep purple-crimson in autumn. The bark is strikingly rough and loosely ridged. Very hardy.

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Quercus aliena NJM 11.078

A collection from Guizhou, SW China, of this small growing species with fairly large, obovate, wavily toothed leaves. Rarely offered though hardy and handsome, resembling in many ways Q. prinus of the USA.

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Quercus aucheri NJM 12.009 (new)

Closely related to Q. coccifera, this endemic of a limited area of the Eastern Mediterranean is known from localised and isolated populations and classified as 'near threatened' by the IUCN. It differs in being pubescent in all parts, including the acorns. A slow growing, grey-green, small evergreen tree eventually. Particularly rare in cultivation.

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Quercus bicolor

The N. American Swamp White Oak makes a medium sized very hardy tree in the UK to about 20m tall in the finest specimens. Trunks have particularly flaking bark and the shallowly lobed leaves are up to 18cm long, glossy green above and pale whiteish beneath, turning to golden yellow and russet in autumn. Not for thin chalky soils.

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Quercus canariensis

An arresting species, with big, shallowly lobed, thick textured, dark, semi-evergreen leaves, pale glaucous on the underside, and impressive deeply fissured bark. This makes a large, imposing tree eventually, with an upright but full, broadly rounded crown. Not from the Canaries, but hailing from Spain, S Portugal and N Africa. Easy on most soils. Hardy.

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Quercus candicans F&M 149

A very impressive, evergreen, medium to large species with big, broad, generally unlobed leaves, pale-grey beneath. Vigorously upright with horizontal branching, this has generally proved a great success in a North Devon garden. Collected Puebla State, Mexico. Growing with Ceanothus caeruleus, Garrya laurifolium etc. For milder gardens.

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Quercus castaneifolia NJM 13.004 (new)

One of the fastest growing and truly most magnificent of all oaks; one only needs to visit Kew to see this! My collection from the Caspian Hyrcanian forests, very near Lankaran, S. Azerbaijan. A superb specimen for a large garden or parkland forming a huge rounded crown. The leaves are rather chestnut-like, funnily enough, margined with coarse, triangular teeth.

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Quercus castaneifolia NJM 13.006 (new)

One of the fastest growing and truly most magnificent of all oaks; one only needs to visit Kew to see this! My collection from the Caspian Hyrcanian forests, S. Azerbaijan. A superb specimen for a large garden or parkland forming a huge rounded crown. The leaves are rather chestnut-like, funnily enough, margined with coarse, triangular teeth.

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Quercus castaneifolia NJM 13.008 (new)

One of the fastest growing and truly most magnificent of all oaks; one only needs to visit Kew to see this! My collection from the Caspian Hyrcanian forests, S. Azerbaijan. A superb specimen for a large garden or parkland forming a huge rounded crown. The leaves are rather chestnut-like, funnily enough, margined with coarse, triangular teeth.

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Quercus coccifera NJM 12.006 (new)

'Kermes Oak'. The classic dwarf scrub oak of the Mediterranean basin, looking more like a holly. This collection from SW Turkey. A slow growing, drought resistant evergreen shrub, eventually reaching 2m or more in a sunny site. The foliage often emerges in beautiful shades of copper-red. This is the host plant of the cochineal producing Kermes insect.

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Quercus coccinea 'Splendens'

This selected form of the N American 'Scarlet Oak' is a magnificent sight when the very beautiful, deeply lobed foliage turns to a rich, glowing, bright red in the autumn sunlight. What other large tree can do this in the UK climate? Fast growing on most soils, making a grand specimen.

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Quercus dentata 'Carl Ferris Miller'

The Daimyo oak from the Far East has spectacularly outsize foliage, superficially similar in form to our common oak, but many times the size. The twigs are very stout and plants can colour well in autumn, often with reds and oranges. This form, collected in Korea, performs very well in N. Europe. Usually a small to medium sized tree in this country.

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Quercus dentata 'Pinnatifida'

A slow growing from of the marvellous Far Eastern Daimyo oak with very deeply incised foliage, giving a particularly lacy appearance. As hardy as the norm but much slower growing, making a large shrub or eventually, after very many years, a small tree. Rarely seen in cultivation. For any normal soil.

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Quercus engleriana NJM 11.028 (new)

Particularly rare in cultivation, this evergreen oak from SW China makes a large tree to 25m tall with a full rounded crown, though about 10m in cultivation here. Distinctive long slim taper pointed leaves with bright green undersides, deep green above and up to 16cm long.

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Quercus falcata (new)

The Southern Red Oak from the Eastern, Southern and Central USA forms a vigorous large tree with long stalked glossy green foliage to 20cm long, grey hairy beneath. Foliage varies enormously, but on an individual specimen early season leaves are often 3 to 5 lobed, the lobes long and slim and those on the second flush with up to 10 lobes.

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Quercus franchetii (new)

Very rarely obtainable, this handsome evergreen oak, mainly found wild in SW China, reaches up to 15m in the wild. The finely serrated usually elliptic foliage is up to 12cm long, emerges covered in off-white hair and expands to deep-green above with the underside densely covered by the same very short off-white hair. Seemingly perfectly hardy.

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Quercus germana (new)

A large evergreen species from Mexico with leaves up to 20cm long, toothed only towards the apex. The new growth colour is particularly beautiful, being deep maroon tinted, but also overlain with the merest glaucous satiny sheen - a truly lovely combo. Slightly delicate, but worth trying in southerly areas, especially with reasonably warm summers.

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Quercus glauca Indian form (new)

An evergreen Oak with a very wide distribution, from the Himalaya to the Far East, but rarely seen over here. It forms a bushy small tree with finely toothed leaves, pointed at the tip, rich bronze-red when expanding, turning deep green and glossy above, though glaucous beneath. Perfectly hardy. This collection from Shillong Peak, NE India.

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Quercus glauca Taiwanese form (new)

An evergreen Oak with a very wide distribution, from the Himalaya to the Far East, but rarely seen over here. It forms a bushy small tree with finely toothed leaves, pointed at the tip, rich bronze-red when expanding, turning deep green and glossy above, though glaucous beneath. Perfectly hardy.

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Quercus greggii

This evergreen Mexican oak makes a shrub, or more often a small tree with thickly leathery foliage to only 7cm long. The leaves are shallowly lobed only on the upper half and densely clothed with pale beige hairs beneath. Only introduced to cultivation in the UK in 1979, this remains particularly rare, though a specimen at Kew still exists.

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Quercus griffithii NJM 13.075 (new)

Collected in the Eastern hills of Manipur, this is a very rare opportunity to purchase this Himalayan/SE Asian species which has only very recently been introduced to cultivation. The deciduous foliage is bold and up to about 20cm long, with shallow, forward pointing lobes. This oak prefers warm summers and is growing strongly at Kew, for example.

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Quercus hirtifolia

A very recent introduction of this Mexican evergreen oak from Puebla State, closely related to Q. hintoniorum, another Mexican oak. This makes a shrub or small tree with obovate to elliptic leathery leaves, finely toothed and often with an undulating edge. Extremely rare in cultivation. Be one of the first to grow it. Full sun and reasonable shelter advisable.

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Quercus imbricaria (new)

The Shingle Oak from the Eastern USA; these acorns were collected in Illinois and seem to represent a fairly large leaved form. Very simple foliage, being up to 18cm long and oblong, without lobes, rich shining green, turning to deep red in autumn. Strong growing in youth, but only reaching to a maximum of 20m tall. Not for shallow chalk soils.

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Quercus macrocarpa (new)

The Burr oak from N America makes a striking, characterful, medium sized hardy tree with huge foliage on young vigorous specimens up to 40cm long. The leaves are conspicuously lobed and covered on the underside by a pale mat of fine hairs. Bone hardy, but rarely seen here in the UK. Not for thin chalk soils.

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Quercus myrtifolia (new)

The Myrtle Oak hails from the Far S.E. USA where it makes an evergreen or semi-evergreen shrub or small tree with rigid, glossy, bright green, usually obovate foliage up to 5cm long. Very drought tolerant and hardy if given shelter.

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Quercus pagoda (new)

The Cherrybark Oak from the moist bottomland forests of the SE USA is a close relation of Q. falcata and makes a fast growing tree up to about 20m in the UK. Leaves are along the lines of many red oak types, but the derivation of the name pagoda can be seen by turning a leaf on end. Splendid red autumn colour. Not for shallow chalk soils.

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Quercus petraea subsp. iberica NJM 13.025 (new)

This is not from Spain or Portugal as the name might suggest, but actually a very rare eastern variant from SW Asia, the leaves having up to ten pairs of shallow lobes. These were found in the Eastern Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Highly drought resistant and completely hardy, making a fine large specimen oak.

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Quercus polymorpha (new)

The Mexican White Oak is rarely found in the UK, but is hardy and has reached at least 5m tall in Cambridgeshire. It will no doubt prefer the extra heat of the Southern Counties however. Unlobed to slightly lobed semi-evergreen ovate to elliptic foliage up to 15cm long. Reaches 20m in the wild and will no doubt do so in parts of Southern Europe too.

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Quercus pubescens

An unusual Southern European deciduous oak, with the downy grey-green foliage deeply dissected into narrow lobes. Easy and hardy in the UK, it is also very drought tolerant: I have seen them growing on rocky South facing hillsides on the Italian Riviera. Makes a small to medium sized tree.

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Quercus pubescens subsp. crispata NJM 12.016 (new)

A fairly obscure, Southern European, deciduous oak, with the downy, grey-green foliage deeply dissected into narrow lobes. Easy and hardy in the UK, it is also very drought tolerant: I have seen them growing on rocky South facing hillsides on the Italian Riviera. Makes a small to medium sized tree.

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Quercus pubescens subsp. crispata NJM 12.017 (new)

A fairly obscure, Southern European, deciduous oak, with the downy, grey-green foliage deeply dissected into narrow lobes. Easy and hardy in the UK, it is also very drought tolerant: I have seen them growing on rocky South facing hillsides on the Italian Riviera. Makes a small to medium sized tree.

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Quercus pyrenaica NJM 12.001 (new)

A collection from Far Western Portugal of this European endemic, representing an outyling population. Particularly well lobed deciduous foliage, with 4 to 7 on each side of the leaves, which emerge covered in a whitish wool in spring, turning glossy on top. A good strong oak reaching 25m or so in the UK.

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Quercus rotundifolia - from Andalucia

A very rarely seen oak from the mountains of S Spain and North Africa. It forms a sturdy, domed, medium sized evergreen tree in the wild, the foliage being rounded and spiny and quite glaucous in most specimens. Very drought tolerant, and closely related to the Holm Oak, Q. ilex. A recent Mark Fillan collection from Andalucia, Spain. Hardy.

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Quercus rugosa NJM 05.013b

An evergreen oak with broad, grey-green, hard, leathery foliage, glaucous on the underside and with shallow teeth. A medium sized oak collected west of Teziutlan, Puebla State, Mexico at 2100m alt. This has proven hardy in southern England over many years.

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Quercus rysophylla 'Maya'

This evergreen oak from NE Mexico has proven hardy over many years in the UK, forming a vigorous medium size tree so far, with the most striking, hard, glossy dark-green leaves, very prominently and deeply veined and up to 25cm long by 8cm wide, emerging rich red and downy on new growth. This cultivar selected for finer colouring. For a site in reasonable shelter.

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Quercus sadleriana (new)

A Western North American evergreen scrub oak endemic to the Siskiyou Mts., forming a handsome stoutly branched shrub only 1.8 to 3m high. The comparatively large leathery deep-green leaves to about 12cm long are paler beneath and are conspicuously and deeply parallel veined and surprisingly similar to Q. pontica. A slow growing drought tolerant rarity.

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Quercus salicina

One of the most beautiful of all oaks and although particularly rare it is perfectly hardy.. A medium sized tree eventually with very narrow, evergreen leaves with tiny teeth and a long drip tip, but most importantly, they have the most lovely white undersides. The crown is dense and luscious and this clone has particularly good red new growth.

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Quercus schottkyana (new)

A SW Chinese endemic evergreen oak, related to Q. glauca, but with the new foliage densely white hairy and pinky-red, turning green above and glaucous beneath, serrated and with a drawn out tip. A handsome Cyclobalanopsis oak, rare in cultivation, but doing very well here. The largest known in the UK is a young specimen 10m tall at Chevithorne Barton.

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Quercus semecarpifolia Small leaved form (new)

A Nepalese collection of this splendid, but rarely seen evergreen oak with smaller than normal leaves. Potentially forming a strong upright tree 15 to 20m tall given 100 years, with handsome undulate foliage, spine edged on young plants, but entire on older specimens, emerging with the undersides conspicuously sand-yellow hairy. Very hardy.

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Quercus sp. NJM 05.013a (new)

A medium sized tree with fairly narrow evergreen foliage with shallow lobes and the most superb, rich-red new growth. Collected west of Teziutlan, Puebla State, Mexico at 2100m alt. Fully hardy and even fully evergreen exposed in a field through Dec 2010 here in a rural frost hollow in Gloucestershire! Unidentified as yet.

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Quercus suber

Cork Oak. A short stemmed, eventually spreading, evergreen tree with amazing pale beige, very, very, very thick, rugged, fire proof cork bark: even young plants start to show this feature. Make your own bottle stoppers! Surprisingly hardy; one of the finest specimens in the British Isles has been growing near here for the last 150 or so years.

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Quercus texana (new)

The Texas Red Oak makes a medium to large, fast growing tree with a rounded crown. The deeply lobed leaves emerge coppery-red tinted and autumn colours come late in the season, being deep red and plum. Not good on thin alkaline soils.

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Quercus texana 'New Madrid' (new)

From the Missouri town of the same name, this spectacular form has deep red new growth that fades slowly through different shades of red to green. The Texas Red Oak makes a medium to large, fast growing tree with a rounded crown. Autumn colours come late in the season, being deep red and plum. Not good on thin alkaline soils.

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Quercus trojana (new)

Macedonian Oak. An Albanian collection of this Balkan, SE Italian and Turkish deciduous oak, related to Q. cerris, but with rather different foliage and only forming a small to medium sized densely branched tree, to a maximum of about 20m here. The persistent leaves are glossy green, oblong, taper pointed and margined with large triangular teeth,

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Quercus velutina

The Black oak is, perhaps confusingly, a red oak type from the USA with big, hard textured, deeply lobed foliage, dark green above and pale hairy beneath, often 30cm long. A bright yellow dye, quercitron, has been extracted from the inner bark in its homelands. Makes a large impressive hardy tree, but not good on shallow chalk soils.

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Quercus x bushii 'Seattle Trident' (new)

A superb foliage plant of the first order. Strikingly handsome broad, glossy, dark-green leaves are prominently three lobed at the apex and about 20cm long. A hybrid of Q. marilandica and Q. velutina making a perfectly hardy small to medium sized deciduous tree eventually.

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Rehderodendron macrocarpum

A most desirable and rarely available Styrax relative from China. A small tree for neutral to acid soil bearing pendent clusters of softly fragrant, cup-shaped, slightly pink tinged white flowers with conspicuous exserted yellow anthers in May. Cocktail sausage sized, ribbed, bright red, dangling fruit hang from the branches in autumn. Foliage tinted in autumn.

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Reineckea carnea

Easy little evergreen spreader for some shade with grassy leaves and starry pale pink flowers from rich pink buds from late spring. A Lily of the valley relative from the Far East. Height 15cm.

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Rhamnus imeretina

A most unusual Buckthorn, very rarely seen, and certainly the most striking species, coming from the Caucasus where most plant types have their most outstanding, vigorous, healthy species. A hardy medium sized to large shrub with very bold foliage on stout shoots, the leaves sometimes up to 35cm long and 10cm wide, bronze-purple in autumn. Not for a dry site.

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Rheum 'Great Bere' (new)

A giant form of uncertain parentage, forming massive plants with huge foliage and soaring vertical inflorescences up to nearly 4m tall! A huge statement plant for soil that doesn't dry too much in sun or semi-shade. Hardy.

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Rheum acuminatum ex PAB 2487

A very ornamental, rare, Himalayan alpine rhubarb. Panicles of rosy flowers on bright red stems to 1m high over deeply veined heart shaped leaves, soft red beneath. Seemingly tough and tolerant, and not that needy of excess moisture. These are seed raised from a plant originally collected in Bhutan.

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Rheum alexandrae KGB 767 (new)

The finest form of this fabulous species introduced thus far, with relatively sizable thick textured foliage and splendid inflorescences composed of larger than usually seen palest yellow down turned bracts, that protect the flowers from the harshness of its native environs. Some forms have rather pathetic inflorescences; these are the opposite. A good doer in moist soil.

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Rheum palmatum 'Red Herald' (new)

A large ornamental rhubarb with giant, jaggedly lobed foliage that emerges red and turns green with red undersides. Strikingly red flowers in a branched head to 2m in May-June. For any reasonable soil, not too dry.

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Rhododendron aff. arizelum KR 10420 (new)

A collection from Arunachal Pradesh. One of the finer large leaved species; leaf undersides covered in rich cinnamon velvety indumentum. Flowers very variable in colour, being cream to deep yellow, white, or pale to deep pink. The gorgeous bark is pink to reddish brown. A large shrub to small tree in the right conditions. Hardy over most of the UK with shelter.

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Rhododendron aff. kendrickii KR 10359 (new)

A collection from Arunachal Pradesh of what appears to be this species. This was a small tree found at 1922m asl. Flowers should be dense rounded trusses of pink, scarlet or crimson flowers, sometimes with darker spots. Leaves are glossy deep green and lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate. Rare in cultivation. For milder gardens

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Rhododendron arizelum (new)

A collection from Far NW Yunnan. One of the finer large leaved species; leaf undersides covered in rich cinnamon velvety indumentum. Flowers very variable in colour, being cream to deep yellow, white, or pale to deep pink. The gorgeous bark is pink to reddish brown. A large shrub to small tree in the right conditions. Hardy over most of the UK with shelter.

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Rhododendron boothii Mishmiense Group KR 10716 (new)

A rare opportunity to purchase this epiphytic species from Arunachal Pradesh and SE Tibet. This collection found growing at c.2800m asl in Arunachal Pradesh. A shrub 1.5 to 2.5m tall with densely bristly branches and heads of yellow flowers with red spots. New foliage deep red, becoming very thick textured and green. For milder gardens or pot culture.

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Rhododendron johnstoneanum NJM 12.068 (new)

From the summit of Khayangphung, Manipur at 2800m asl, smack on the border with Burma. A large evergreen shrub of the Maddenia Subsect., the dark green foliage with a bristly margin and densely golden scaly beneath. Open faced sweetly scented white flowers blotched yellow in the throat emerge from primrose buds. Hardy in mild gardens.

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Rhododendron sinofalconeri NJM 09.137 (new)

A collection from Fan Si Pan, N. Vietnam at 2300m asl where it grew as a 7m high small tree. Introduced to the UK in only 1992, this has proven completely hardy, even in Scotland. Large leathery obovate foliage to 32cm long is beige underneath and the large trusses of bell-shaped flowers are pale-yellow, seen in April and May.

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Rhodohypoxis baurii 'Mars'

A vivid pink clone. A South African alpine plant in nature enjoying a moist summer in well drained gritty, peaty soil and full sun. Grassy leaves and flowers in June/July. Ideal in a trough, pot or well drained rock garden, with a slate or similar over the dormant plant in winter to keep off excess moisture. Hardy.

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Rhodohypoxis deflexa

Bright pink flowers, slightly smaller than others but very floriferous. Grassy leaves and flowers in June/July. Seems to be tolerant of more winter moisture than others, but still advisable to plant in a trough or similar very well drained position. A South African alpine plant in nature enjoying a moist summer in well drained gritty, peaty soil and full sun.

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Rhodohypoxis milloides

Taller and more upright than other species. A South African alpine plant enjoying a moist summer in well drained gritty, peaty soil and full sun. Grassy leaves and vivid deep-pink flowers in mid to late summer. Ideal in a trough, pot or well drained rock garden, with a slate or similar over the dormant plant in winter to keep off excess moisture. Hardy.

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Rhus potaninii (new)

One of the finest small trees for brilliant red autumn colour, receiving an Award of Merit for such. Leaflets toothed in juvenility, becoming entire in adulthood. Vigorous in youth and reaching about 10m at maturity. Good in most soils, acid or alkaline and perfectly hardy. Rarely flowers or fruits in the UK.

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Ribes laurifolium

An invaluable winter flowering evergreen small shrub. Leathery foliage is overlain with a multitude of pale green flower clusters in Feb-March. Excellent in sun or shade. Flower arrangers love it. Easy.

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Ribes laurifolium 'Mrs Amy Doncaster'

A more compact and floriferous variety of this invaluable winter flowering evergreen small shrub. Leathery foliage is overlain with a multitude of pale green flower clusters in Feb-March. Excellent in sun or shade. Flower arrangers love it. Easy.

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Rodgersia nepalensis

A rare species with large pinnate foliage and unusual one sided inflorescences of greenish-white flowers, up to 1m high in summer. Moist soil in semi-shade. Thought by some to be tender, but bone hardy with me, even in pots at -10c.

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Rodgersia pinnata 'Superba'

Bold foliage, strongly red-tinted. Red-pink flowers from red stems. Fabulous. 90cm. Moist soil, sun or part shade.

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Rodgersia pinnata White form

Big bold pinnate foliage with fluffy white flowers reaching above in summer, up to 1m+. For moist soil, never too dry, in semi-shade.

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Rodgersia podophylla

Big bold beautifully shaped leaves, heavily bronze tinted on expansion, turning dark green and then to good autumnal tints. White flowers in fluffy heads above the foliage in summer. Height 1m+. Moist-ish soil in part shade.

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Rohdea japonica 'Talbot Manor' (new)

An asparagus relative, though you wouldn't readily know it, with a tropical look. Broad evergreen leathery leaves, irregularly striped and margined with cream. Flowers are fascinating but irrelevant and borne at the very base of the plant. Best in shade where it will be very drought tolerant.

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Romneya coulteri 'White Cloud'

A selected form of Matilija poppy, producing extra large silky flowers, the size, shape and colour of a fried egg, but infinitely more beautiful. Flowering from Jul to Oct over bluey foliage on stems to 2.5m, but most often to about 1.5m, spreading at the root to form a colony. Sometimes tricky to establish, so give it a warm spot in full sun in good open soil.

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Rosa 'Cooperi'

'Cooper's Burmese Rose'. A very beautiful large growing, semi-evergreen climber for a south wall, with large, single, pure white, slightly fragrant flowers with golden anthers in June, over wonderful healthy, glossy-green, bold foliage on reddened stems. A very tasteful, 'quality' rose with superb foliage. Bone hardy here, even through December 2010.

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Rosa banksiae 'Lutescens'

NOT to be confused with the common double flowered 'Lutea', this is the rarely encountered, single flowered, highly scented yellow Banksian rose. A small leaved evergreen climber with virtually no thorns, reaching up to 7.5m with suitable support. Bunches of small, warm-yellow, sweetly scented flowers are produced in May. For a sunny wall.

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Rosa banksiae var. normalis

The true wild type of Banksian rose, forming a strong growing semi-evergreen climber with virtually NO thorns, bearing masses of small cream flowers in early summer over attractive dainty foliage with narrow leaflets. Flowers are borne in clusters, have conspicuously notched petals and are scented of violets. For a warm sheltered wall.

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Rosa brunonii KR 10350

A recent collection of the renowned Himalayan Musk Rose from the far NE Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh. Richly fragrant white flowers are borne in tight clusters in summer. A large climber for a sunny wall or up a tree, best grown in the south of the UK as it appreciates warmer summers.

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Rosa chinensis var. spontanea

This is the wild ancestor of all Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses, discovered and introduced to cultivation by Mikinori Ogisu, from Sichuan, China. A nearly thornless evergreen climber to about 3m with single flowers opening pink in early summer, but soon turning crimson, with all stages seen on the plant at the same time. A great rarity for a warm wall.

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Rosa cymosa 'Rebecca Rushforth' (new)

A selection of this Chinese climbing rose with flattened domes of small creamy white flowers with conspicuous yellow stamen in May/June followed by clusters of small red hips. Foliage is composed of narrow pointed, elegant leaflets and new growth is especially red tinted. For a sunny wall, not too cold.

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Rosa cymosa NJM 11.079

Found at the roadside at 1200m in north central Guizhou, China, this made a climbing rose with clusters of small red hips. Unseen in flower these are first generation plants from this collection, but should have flattened domes of small creamy white flowers with conspicuous yellow stamen in May/June. New growth is red tinted. For a sunny wall, not too cold.

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Rosa gigantea x longicuspis

Collected from R. gigantea in Yunnan by Martyn Rix. The flowers are typical R. gigantea, being large, softest yellow in bud, opening cream and fading white with a beautiful form and up to 14cm across. Other parts lean more toward R. longicuspis, leaves being smaller, stiffer and distinctly pewtered, with the stems deep red. A strong growing climber for a warm wall.

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Rosa glomerata NJM 11.048

Found in roadside scrub near the mountain Fanjingshan, NE Guizhou, China. A large growing species suitable for sending up trees etc., with billowing masses of white flowers, each with a boss of conspicuous yellow stamen at their centres. These are seen late, in July, and are highly scented. Bunches of orange hips as conspicuous as the flowers follow in autumn.

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Rosa helenae

A recent re-introduction from China, this was discovered originally by Wilson and named after his wife. A vigorous hardy climbing rose, suitable for putting into trees etc, with creamy-white fragrant flowers borne in large dense corymbs in summer, followed in autumn by drooping bunches of narrowly ovoid orange-red fruit.

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Rosa sericea subsp. omeiensis PAB 2883

Recently collected in Bhutan by Paul Barney, this form of a variable species has over eleven leaflets to each ferny-looking leaf and bizarre looking fruit, having the stalk enlarged and fleshy like the fruit, forming an elongated hip in red and yellow, seen in summer. Flowers are white with usually four petals. Makes a tough, medium sized, dense shrub with prickly stems.

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Roscoea auriculata

A fine species with an exceptionally long flowering period. Rich purple orchid-like flowers on leafy stems to about 40cm in late summer and autumn. Sun or part shade, not overly wet in winter.

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Roscoea purpurea 'Red Gurkha'

True bright red flowers on a short stout plant with green foliage and deep red pseudostems. A most desirable form emerging from the ground only in about mid June and flowering as late as August and September. Best in humus rich soil in light shade, never too dry. Found in central Nepal in 1992.

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Rosmarinus officinalis 'Tuscan Blue'

A fine form with intensely azure blue flowers often produced in winter over particularly broad leaves, on an upright bushy specimen to about 1m. Requires a sheltered sunny site on well drained soil. A superb form, though not for very cold areas.

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Rostrinucula dependens

An endemic Chinese lightly suckering shrub, new to Western cultivation. A member of the mint family, it bears masses of long, pendulous inflorescences of lilac-pink flowers from whitish buds in summer. Foliage is slim and white hairy under, contrasting with the burgundy stems. Easy in sun and well drained soil, this reaches about 2.5m high. Hardy to below -10c.

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Rostrinucula dependens NJM 11.072

My collection of this lightly suckering shrub from Guizhou, SW China. Newish to Western cultivation, it bears masses of long, pendulous inflorescences of lilac-pink flowers from whitish buds in late summer. The slim green foliage is less hairy on the underside in this form. Easy in sun and well drained soil, this reaches about 2.5m high. Hardy to below -10c.

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Rubus lineatus from Nagaland (new)

One of the finest of foliage plants, up there with Neolitsea, Schefflera etc, with extremely attractive leaves in the style of a Schefflera, but with the 5 leaflets conspicuously and densely parallel veined, green above and silvery, shining, silky beneath. A virtually spineless, multistemmed semi-evergreen shrub to 2m, for a sheltered corner.

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Rubus phoenicolasius

The 'Wineberry' makes a delicious addition to the ornamental garden, for it indeed makes an attractive plant as well as bearing bunches of tasty, distinctively flavoured, bright orange red fruits in late summer. The bristly red arching stems are superb in winter and reach up to 3m, and the large trifoliate leaves are white felted beneath. Easy and hardy.

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Rudbeckia laciniata

The Cutleaf Coneflower from eastern N. America produces deeply dissected slightly grey-green foliage and flowering stems to 2m tall. The late summer and autumn flowers are composed of a yellow-green central cone surrounded by lemon yellow rays. The young leaves were traditionally gathered and eaten after gentle cooking as greens. For retentive soil in sun.

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Rudbeckia maxima

An arresting species with large, late, yellow flowers on tall, erect stems to 1.8m, over broad, brassica-like pale blue-green foliage. Sunny site.

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Rudbeckia subtomentosa 'Henry Eilers'

A tall late flowering yellow daisy from the prairies, reaching 1.5m on strong stems. This unique form was discovered in Illinois and selected for its unusual ray florets (petals) which are tube-like and very slim, with open ends. The foliage has a subtle vanilla fragrance. Great with other late flowering perennials and grasses. For sun or semi-shade.

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Rumex alpinus

A splendid non-invasive dock from upland areas of Europe and W. Asia. In the best forms, like this one, the foliage is very bold, very broad and handsome and a joy in itself. Upright red tinted inflorescences reach about 75cm in late spring. Forms a gently spreading patch for sun or semi-shade in any ordinary soil.

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Salix capusii

Virtually unknown in cultivation, this very attractive willow from C. Asia was introduced by John Whitehead and makes a large shrub with very pretty grey-blue particularly narrow foliage. Could be kept much smaller of course with annual or biannual pruning. Very hardy and easy.

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Salix chaenomeloides 'Mt Aso'

New from Japan, where it is used for cut stems in the floristry industry, this is a pink flowered pussy willow. Large dark-pink flower buds open to show soft furry, silvery pink 'pussies' before the leaves emerge in early spring. Making a large shrub or small tree if left unpruned, this can be kept very much smaller by cutting to the ground each year after flowering.

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Salix exigua

The Coyote willow from the Western USA and Northern Mexico is one of the most lovely of all willows, primarily due to the narrow, silver, linear leaves. A beautiful foil for other things and one of the most silvery things in the garden. Makes a large erect shrub or small tree. Suckers around a bit, but easily hoed off where not wanted, as I do here.

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Salix magnifica (male)

A very distinct willow; thought to be a Magnolia when first discovered in China by Wilson in 1909. Forms a hardy large shrub with broad leaves, sometimes up to 20cm long and 13 cm wide, and striking long catkins in spring. Any reasonable soil, best if not too dry. These are male, which bear far superior catkins in spring - red in bud, opening with bright yellow pollen.

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Salix radinostachya (new)

A really rather ornamental shrubby willow, having deep red stems in winter and bright green, relatively large, lanceolate leaves with pale white glaucous undersides and red petioles, the red bleeding into the leaf midrib. Extremely rare in cultivation.

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Salvia chamaedryoides Silver form

A very silver leaved, blue flowered Mexican shrublet to 30cm high and about 50cm across. The combination of silver-grey small leaves and masses of deep blue flowers is a delight. Fairly hardy, this needs a sunny well drained spot. This could be likened to a blue flowered, silver leaved S. greggii.

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Salvia chamaedryoides var. isochroma

A silver leaved, blue flowered Mexican shrublet to 30cm high and about 50cm across. The combination of silver-grey small leaves and masses of deep blue flowers is a delight. Fairly hardy, this needs a sunny well drained spot. This could be likened to a blue flowered, silver leaved S. greggii.

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Salvia dombeyi (new)

The longest flowered Salvia in the world (up to 11cm!), this tall growing species from S. Peru and N. Bolivia is not known in the wild. Elongated heart shaped foliage is up to 18cm long and plants reach 1.8 to 2.5m. The huge lax clusters of vertically dangling intense scarlet hairy flowers from red-black calyces are borne continuously from summer to winter. Happiest moist and cool with no frost.

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Salvia guaranitica 'Black and Blue'

Makes a broad, rounded clump of fairly shiny vivid green foliage, topped by rich blue flowers from virtually black calyces from late summer. Height to about 1.3m. Mulch over the base of this perennial South American species if you are concerned about cold; it is nearly fully hardy. This is the real deal and not the big bruiser that masquerades as such.

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Salvia guaranitica Small form (new)

A lower growing form, making a broad, rounded clump of fairly shiny vivid green foliage, topped by rich blue flowers from very dark calyces from late summer. Height under 1m. Mulch over the base of this perennial South American species if you are concerned about cold; it is nearly fully hardy.

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Salvia pratensis 'Indigo'

A beautiful hardy herbaceous sage. Indigo blue flowers from dark calyces in summer. Height 60cm. Sun

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Salvia regla

A mass of large, bright scarlet flowers with inflated orange-red calyces are produced from July until frost over small deltoid leaves on this shrubby sage, making a compact but upright plant to about 1.2m. For a sheltered, well drained, sunny position but ideally best in a pot, overwintered in a cool glasshouse etc. Native of Mexico and a small part of Texas.

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Salvia serboana (syn. vitifolia)

A relatively new introduction from the mountain forests of Oaxaca, Mexico, this close relation of S. patens has much bigger, softly hairy, triangular foliage and strong growth to 1.8m in one season. Large intense deep blue flowers in late summer atop the stems. This has proved totally hardy for Robin Middleton in Bagshot, Surrey. Sun or semi-shade, not too scorched and dry.

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Salvia stachydifolia CDPR 3071

Collected in Argentina, making a hardy herbaceous perennial and reaching 1.5 x 1.5m and flowering from June until frost. Soft, light blue flowers with a white blotch come from graphite-blue tinged calyces. Even more flowers come if dead headed. Very attractive, if you ask me. For sun or semi-shade.

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Salvia stachydifolia Dark blue calyx (new)

A highly variable species, this Argentinean beauty has proved hardy in the UK. A large plant, up to 2.5m tall by 1.8m across in one season, this comes into its own in late summer autumn, when the deep blue flowers from dark calyces are borne in great profusion.

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Salvia stachydifolia Lavender calyx (new)

A highly variable species, this Argentinean beauty has proved hardy in the UK. A large plant, up to 2.5m tall by 1.8m across in one season, this comes into its own in late summer autumn, when the blue flowers from lavender calyces are borne in great profusion.

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Salvia uliginosa

Dazzling azure blue flowers in late summer and autumn on upright slender stems to 2m. Warm, sunny position and not too dry soil. Mulch in winter if you are very cold, but otherwise hardy.

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Salvia uliginosa 'Ballon Azul' (new)

A lower growing selection from Germany, reaching 1m only. Dazzling azure blue flowers in late summer and autumn on upright slender stems. Warm, sunny position and not too dry soil. Mulch in winter if you are very cold.

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Salvia x jamensis 'Peter Vidgeon' (new)

Bright lavender-pink flowers from dark calyces over a very long period in summer-autumn (i.e. June to November). A twiggy bush to 1m. Fairly hardy, given sun and drainage.

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Sambucus nigra subsp. caerulea (new)

Totally neglected in cultivation over here, this is really very beautiful in fruit. The Blue Elderberry from the Western USA does what it says on the tin. Highly attractive bright pale-sky-blue berries are borne in large bunches in late summer/autumn. Otherwise it is rather similar in most ways to our tough old native, though the foliage is a tad more attractive.

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Sanguisorba caucasica (new)

Good pale grey-green foliage and drooping white catkins of flower in mid to late summer on stems to 90cm. Hardy and easy in sun or semi-shade and not overly dry soil.

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Sanguisorba menziesii

A Burnet with wine-red tassel flowers in summer. Attractive grey-green foliage. Height to 90 cm. Sun or part shade.

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Sanguisorba obtusa 'Chatto'

Bold glaucous pinnate leaves and branched spikes of fluffy pink flowers in summer to 60cm tall. Forms spreading patches. Sun, not too dry.

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Sanguisorba officinalis 'Red Thunder'

A good floriferous form reaching about 1.5m and bearing masses of deep red bobble flowers in July/Aug. Sun or part shade. Not too dry a position.

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Sanguisorba tenuifolia var. parviflora

Drooping white 'catkins' in summer over very finely divided pinnate leaves. Makes good clumps to 1m high. Sun and moister soil.

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Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna

A dwarf evergreen shrub and one of the finest forms of Christmas Box, with long, narrow foliage on purple stems and pink tinged white flowers, small, but very sweetly scented and borne in profusion in the middle of winter. Best positioned near your front door where you'll get the full benefit. Very shade and lime tolerant.

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Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna Crinkle leaf

A dwarf evergreen shrub and one of the finest forms of Christmas Box, with long, narrow foliage, crinkled in this unusual form, on purple stems and pink tinged white flowers, small, but very sweetly scented and borne in profusion in the middle of winter. Best positioned near your front door where you'll get the full benefit. Very shade and lime tolerant, if needed.

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Sarcococca hookeriana var. humilis

A dwarf Christmas Box reaching only 60 cm high but spreading over the years to form patches of densely branched stems clothed in glossy dark, evergreen foliage. Typically sweetly fragrant flowers, small but produced en masse, are borne in the depths of winter. Easy in any ordinary soil, and tolerant of shade and poor soil.

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Sarcococca orientalis

A Christmas Box introduced from E China by Roy Lancaster in 1980. Comparatively large, broad green leaves and pink tinged white flowers borne en masse in mid-winter, earlier than most and producing a wonderful sweet fragrance, so best planted near a door or path. An evergreen shrub to about 1m, for virtually any soil or position. Very shade tolerant.

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Sarcococca ruscifolia var. chinensis 'Dragon Gate'

A relatively new form of this hardy and tolerant, dwarf, evergreen shrub collected in 1980 by Roy Lancaster from W China. The leaves differ from the norm by being narrow with a long pointed tip, but the flowers are typically small, white, deliciously fragrant and borne en masse in the depths of winter. Very easy to please, in sun or shade, acid or alkaline soil.

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Sarcococca wallichii

A robust Himalayan species of 'Christmas Box' with comparatively broad evergreen foliage (large for the genus) and deliciously scented small white flowers produced in abundance in early winter (earlier than most), followed by purple-black fruit. This rare species forms a bushy plant to about 1.5m high with arching stems. For a reasonably sheltered position.

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Saxegothaea conspicua Weeping form (new)

From Southern Chile and Argentina comes this monotypic tree, which provides a link between Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae. A large shrub or more usually a small tree with spreading and drooping branches with pendulous branchlets, particularly weeping in this form. Almost yew-like, but very distinctive in habit as it ages. Perfectly hardy in the UK.

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Scabiosa argentea PAB 892

An unusual species from SE Europe with finely divided grey-hairy leaves. Cream flower heads in summer. Height 50cm. Sunny well drained position. Very drought tolerant. This collection from Croatia.

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Schefflera alpina NJM 09.140 (new)

Different from NJM 09.157. A high altitude collection from N. Vietnam of this highly desirable large shrub in the Aralia family. Leathery leaflets radiate in groups of seven from long petioles and heads of purple tinged flowers in early autumn make way for bloomy black fruit. One of the hardier species, favouring upland areas in the wild. This collection from 2380m alt.

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Schefflera delavayi (new)

One of the most handsome and potentially hardiest of the Schefflera now grown in the UK. A variable species in the wild it would seem, but this form bears glossy, rich green leaves composed usually of five leaflets, often mildly lobed when young. Spectacular large terminal heads of small white flowers in summer. A large shrub or small tree for a sheltered spot.

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Schefflera delavayi

One of the most handsome and potentially hardiest of the Schefflera now grown in the UK. A variable species in the wild it would seem, but this form bears glossy, rich green leaves composed usually of five leaflets, often mildly lobed when young. Spectacular large terminal heads of small white flowers in summer. A large shrub or small tree for a sheltered spot.

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Schefflera fantsipanensis NJM 10.137

A striking species on account of the two tiered ranks of up to 11 leaflets on the compound leaves. Collected near the Chinese border in N. Vietnam at 2040m alt. on Fan Si Pan Mt., this made a small upright tree to about 5m, though probably smaller here. Best suited to fairly mild areas in the UK, or with overhead protection of trees or a house wall.

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Schefflera fantsipanensis NJM 10.137

A striking species on account of the two tiered ranks of up to 11 leaflets on the compound leaves. Collected near the Chinese border in N. Vietnam at 2040m alt. on Fan Si Pan Mt., this made a small upright tree to about 5m, though probably smaller here. Best suited to fairly mild areas in the UK, or with overhead protection of trees or a cool house wall.

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Schefflera gracilis NJM 10.102 (new)

A rather hardy and relatively small growing elegant species, to about 1.8m, from N. Vietnam, where it is found at around 2000m asl in semi-shade. Compound palmate foliage variably has an extra rank of one or two leaflets above the others. Comparatively large and showy panicles of white flowers in late summer adored by insects. Surprising tough in Dec 2010.

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Schefflera rhododendrifolia

One of the hardiest of all species of this exotic genus of evergreen shrubs and trees. Palmate foliage is variably lobed on young plants, but entire as it matures. A large shrub or small tree of very exotic appearance, requiring a sheltered position in gardens away from the very coldest areas.

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Schefflera rhododendrifolia (syn. impressa)

One of the hardiest members of this most desirable genus of evergreen shrubs or small trees, surviving, with shelter, even the very coldest winters of recent years in inland gardens. Leaflets are variably lobed on young plants, but not in adulthood as they mature into large compound palmate foliage. A large shrub (or even small tree) of very exotic appearance.

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Schefflera sp. nova NJM 10.086

We found this on Tay Con Linh Mountain, Ha Giang Province, N. Vietnam, a stones throw from the Chinese border, at 2425m asl. This fits no known species so needs officially describing! A small evergreen tree to 6m in nature, with narrow heavily toothed foliage when young, each leaflet broadening with age. Black fruit in umbels on a raceme.

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Schefflera sp. nova NJM 10.086

We found this on Tay Con Linh Mountain, Ha Giang Province, N. Vietnam, a stones throw from the Chinese border, at 2425m asl. This fits no known species so needs officially describing! A small evergreen tree to 6m in nature, with narrow heavily toothed foliage when young, each leaflet broadening with age. Black fruit in umbels on a raceme.

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Schefflera sp. nova NJM 13.128 (new)

This recent find from high altitude in Nagaland is apparently an undescribed new species. Sharing the forest at over 2700m asl with Rhododendron macabeanum, this made a small tree to about 10m in the largest specimens, but most often much smaller. Compound palmate leaves with lightly toothed leaflets green above and grey hairy beneath.

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Schefflera taiwaniana

A most desirable member of the Araliaceae from higher altitudes in Taiwan, forming a deliciously tropical looking large shrub with beautiful, digitate, evergreen foliage made up of slim dark, glossy green leaflets. The new, semi-expanded growth is covered in pale hairs. For a sheltered, not too hot position in sun or semi-shade. One of the best species for UK cultivation.

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Schefflera taiwaniana

A most desirable member of the Araliaceae from higher altitudes in Taiwan, forming a deliciously tropical looking large shrub with beautiful, digitate, evergreen foliage made up of slim dark, glossy green leaflets. The new, semi-expanded growth is covered in pale hairs. For a sheltered, not too hot position in sun or semi-shade. One of the best species for UK cultivation.

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Schima aff. argentea NJM 13.042 (new)

A recent collection from Manipur, NE India, which appears to fit this species, with evergreen leathery foliage, tapered at both ends and glaucous below. The golden centred white flowers are like small camellias and are produced in late summer and early autumn. Schima argentea is proven hardy to at least -18c in the UK and makes a large upright shrub.

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Schima khasiana PAB 3447

A collection from Shillong Peak, Meghalaya, NE India. This form has excellent red flushed new growth and particularly wavy edged foliage. Makes a large evergreen shrub or small tree with camellia-like white flowers with a central boss of yellow stamen in late Sept/Oct. Rarely seen in cultivation, but the species has taken -17c in 2010!

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Schisandra grandiflora

A hardy deciduous Himalayan species forming a strong growing climber to about 6m if allowed, though can be kept much smaller with ease. The white to palest pink flowers are borne on drooping stalks from the leaf axils in spring/early summer and, on female plants, are followed by strings of vivid red fruit. Foliage is fairly leathery with conspicuous venation.

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Schisandra propinqua subsp. sinensis

A most unusual species from China, this has very slim evergreen foliage sometimes mottled with silver and clusters of small yellow flowers in summer, the females if pollinated followed by red fruit. Makes a climber to 6m if allowed.

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Schisandra rubriflora

A twining Himalayan deciduous climber with rather lovely, pendulous crimson flowers in late spring, followed on female plants by long dangling strings of bright red berries. Totally hardy, this is suitable for wall, fence or over garden shed etc.

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Schizophragma hydrangeoides 'Rose Sensation'

A refined French selection with the floral bracts more uniformly pink than 'Roseum'. Pink teardrop shaped bracts surround the creamy white, flattened, lacecap heads of flower, seen covering the plant in July. Will easily grow in shade on any suitable support, but flowers better on a sunny wall, where it could eventually reach 12m if you let it. Slow to start.

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Schizophragma integrifolium

A truly aristocratic beauty with fine, slender pointed foliage. This species is larger in all it's parts than S. hydrangeoides, with creamy-white lacecap flowers reaching up to 30cm across, and with the surrounding teardrop bracts up to 9cm long. Can be grown in sun or shade, but will flower best in sun, where it can reach 12m or more. Very nice.

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Schizophragma integrifolium BWJ 8150

Previously circulated as S. aff. megalocarpum and S. corylifolium, this is in fact the wonderful S. integrifolium and makes a noble large climber up to 10m tall, with huge flat lacecaps of white flower in summer, surrounded by persistent teardrop shaped bracts up to 6cm long. Best with its head in sun and roots in cool, moist leafy soil.

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Scilla peruviana

A Southern European bulb, with striking large heads of starry violet flowers in late spring. 25cm. For a hot sunny place with reasonable drainage. A winter growing bulb with a short summer dormancy.

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Scutellaria scordiifolia 'Seoul Sapphire'

A dwarf tuberous long-flowering perennial skullcap. The long tubed rich mauve-blue flowers from maroon calyces are produced in pairs from each node up the red tinted leafy stems from June to Sept. Height 15cm. For well drained soil in sun.

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Sedum 'José Aubergine'

A superb form with new foliage a wonderful bloomy aubergine purple colour before turning darker. Forms an upright non flopping plant with deep, dusky red-pink flowers on stems to about 50-60cm. A hybrid of Sedum 'Purple Emperor'. Sun and well drained soil.

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Sedum 'Red Setter'

A new form with excellent deep red foliage and dark red flowers. Foliage is a much warmer red than many of the new dark forms available. Height 50cm.

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Sedum 'Ringmore Ruby'

An extremely dark plant, with leaves glossy deepest burgundy when settled down in the garden. Upright to about 40cm with deep red flowers in late summer. Butterflies love it as much as any other Sedum.

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Selinum aff. cryptotaenium PAB 8948 (new)

From the mountains of Eastern Manipur, this is a fairly small umbellifer, reaching about 50cm in flower in the wild state. Flat heads of white flower over finely dissected foliage. Sun, but not too dry. Hardiness as yet untested.

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Selinum wallichianum

Flat, white, cow parsley-like flower-heads in summer over gloriously finely cut leaves. The foliage a joy in itself. One of the finest umbellifers, but one that is difficult to keep looking good in a pot on a nursery, darn it! Height 120cm. Sun, but not too dry.

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Selinum wallichianum PAB 8969 (new)

A recent collection of a tall growing form from 2700m asl on the Burmese border of Manipur. Flat, white, cow parsley-like flower-heads in summer over gloriously finely cut leaves. The foliage a joy in itself. One of the finest umbellifers, but one that is difficult to keep looking good in a pot on a nursery, darn it! Height 120cm. Sun, but not too dry.

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Semiarundinaria fastuosa

A superb species for British gardens making impressive dense clumps, or even groves, of bolt upright, thick green culms in sun or shade. The older culms turn to purple after a while and reach 5m or more. Superb for screening or shelter belts and very hardy, performing well even in cold areas.

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Sempervivum 'Bronco'

A splendid hardy variety with red tinged rosettes becoming rich shiny red in winter. Sun and good drainage.

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Sempervivum 'Othello'

Fine, potentially very large dark red rosettes. Pink starry flowers in summer to 15cm. For a sunny position in lean soil.

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Sempervivum 'Virgil'

A very fine cultivar with rich purple foliage heavily washed with a glaucous grey bloom, the intensity of which changes through the season. Bulks up very well. Short stalks of pink flowers in summer. For very well drained gravelly conditions in sun.

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Sempervivum calcaratum 'Extra'

Superb densely packed rosettes of blue green leaves, each leaf tipped with deepest red. Hardy. Sun and very good drainage.

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Sequoiadendron giganteum 'Glaucum' (new)

This light blue-green leaved version of the Giant Redwood forms a much narrower crown, making a slim spire, quite striking when compared to the thumping great ordinary version. This form is less vigorous, but they will no doubt become a fair bit wider given 100 yrs or so. There are fine specimens at the Hillier arboretum in Hampshire. Easy in most positions.

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Sidalcea reptans

Very rarely seen ground covering species from The Sierra Nevada Mts of California with spires of mauve-pink flowers up to 50cm high in summer. Sun or part shade, not too dry. Runs.

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Sinningia tubiflora

Beautifully drooping, long tubed, white trumpets held high on long slim stems emit a wonderfully sweet lemony fragrance in late summer. Makes a mound of softly hairy grey-green foliage. Give this Gesneriad full sun. I grow this as a pot plant overwintered dry but cold in a polytunnel and have yet to experiment with it outside. Bulks up splendidly by way of tubers. Quite gorgeous.

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Sinofranchetia chinensis

A Holboellia relative from China, though deciduous, with foliage composed of three leaflets, glaucous beneath. Forming a vigorous, hardy, twining climber for any reasonable support and mainly grown for the large drooping elongated clusters of lavender-purple, grape-like fruits in autumn as the leaves turn pale-yellow. You'll need both female and male plants for fruit.

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Sinojackia rehderiana

A rare Chinese Styrax relative making a small tree or large shrub with elliptic leaves. The pendulous flowers, appearing in May and June, are pure white and dissected into 4 or 6 lobes, spreading wide to show the yellow stamen. They are usually borne in short racemes, or sometimes singly, en masse below the branches. For a lime free soil, not too dry.

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Sinopodophyllum hexandrum var. chinense

Woodlander for leafy soil with bold deeply lobed palmate foliage, each emerging heavily blotched with red-brown markings and expanding green to 30cm across. Light pink flowers rise just above the foliage in early summer, followed by dangling vivid red edible fruit, much used in herbal medicine. Height 75cm or so at maturity, making a bold clump.

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Skimmia japonica 'Kew White' (new)

A fine female cultivar with unusual creamy white fruits. Simple, dark, evergreen, glossy foliage and conical heads of highly scented creamy-white flowers in June on a dense low mound to about 1m high, sometimes a bit higher. Happy in shade or sun on most soils.

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Skimmia x confusa 'Kew Green'

An excellent and now widely used male cultivar. Simple, dark, evergreen, glossy foliage and conical heads of highly scented creamy-white flowers in June on a dense low mound to about 1m high, sometimes a bit higher. Happy in shade or sun on most soils.

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Smallanthus sonchifolia 'Red China' (new)

Yakon. A big leafy Andean member of the Aster family, producing striking pairs of opposite, dark tinted foliage up the 2m stems. Large leaves are shaped roughly like an arrowhead, with striking veining and a winged petiole, adding an exotic element to any planting. Purple tubers are sweet and edible having an extremely low glycaemic index and are easy to juice. Lift like a Dahlia for winter.

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Smallanthus sonchifolia 'Red China' (new)

Yakon. A big leafy Andean member of the Aster family, producing striking pairs of opposite, dark tinted foliage up the 2m stems. Large leaves are shaped roughly like an arrowhead, with striking veining and a winged petiole, adding an exotic element to any planting. Purple tubers are sweet and edible having an extremely low glycaemic index and are easy to juice. Lift like a Dahlia for winter.

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Smilax aspera

A rare but long cultivated evergreen climber for a sheltered sunny wall where it will make a dense tangle of thorny, narrow, zigzag stems, covered in interesting and attractive heart shaped, grey blotched foliage. Pale green fragrant flowers are produced in racemes during late summer and are often followed by red fruit. Not for very cold areas.

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Sollya heterophylla

Bluebell Creeper. Loveliest of lovelies, sells on sight, but alas not the hardiest, hailing, as it does, from SW Australia. With mild winters, many are getting away with it I'm told. A conservatory suits it admirably however, where it will produce a succession of beautiful little sky-blue, bell-shaped flowers throughout summer and autumn. Not too rampant, up to 2m or more.

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Sorbus (sect. Discolores) KR 5585 (new)

One of the finest of the 'new' rowans on the scene, this one collected by Keith Rushforth in Tibet at 2850m alt. and as yet formally undescribed. The pinnate leaves are blue-green and the heavy clusters of fruit start white and turn pink as the leaves change to warm yellow and orange in autumn. A small tree for any normal soil in good light.

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Sorbus aff. karchungii AGSES 347

One of the fine, large leaved Himalayan whitebeams, this species was originally collected as S. thibetica, but is closest to karchungii according to Keith Rushforth. Collected in Sikkim, this was a medium to large tree in the wild with leaves silvery grey beneath and yellow fruit, tinted orange. An upright, very tolerant, hardy tree.

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Sorbus aff. pseudovilmorinii KR 6453

One of the most striking Sorbus at Ness Botanic Garden in autumn, this Keith Rushforth intro from Pasum Tso, SE Tibet is a small tree about 3-4m tall with very ferny attractive pinnate foliage with multiple small leaflets. The fruit start deep crimson in June and slowly turn paler until they are almost white with a touch of pink in November. Hardy and easy.

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Sorbus commixta 'Olympic Flame'

Collected on the South Korean Island of Ullüngdo in 1976, this is a most impressive form of the species with very large shiny foliage, producing vivid orange-red autumn colour and combining with large clusters of small red berries. Makes a small upright tree with the crown broadening with age.

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Sorbus dunnii

Extremely rare in cultivation, this Chinese whitebeam makes a small shrubby tree to about 3m tall, perhaps more. Foliage is fairly narrow and with a good white underside; the brown hairy veins contrasting well. Heads of white flower in summer followed by decent sized clusters of distinctive diminutive round red fruit. Bone hardy and easy in a sunny position.

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Sorbus fansipanensis NJM 09.176

A rather distinctive looking rowan from N. Vietnam with very glossy dark green foliage. Heads of white flowers in summer are followed by long persistent, small, bright red berries which last through winter. Seeds for these was located on the side of Fan Si Pan mountain at just over 2000m. The earliest intro' of this rarity has reached 3-4m high. For a sheltered spot.

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Sorbus harrowiana KW 21009

Most distinct amongst the rowans, this Chinese species, closely related to S. insignis, has comparatively huge foliage composed of few great fat, thick textured, glossy, dark green leaflets with pale glaucous undersides, turning yellow in autumn. Large flat heads of white flowers are followed by small creamy-white fruits. Makes a large shrub or small tree eventually.

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Sorbus harrowiana ex Dulong, NW Yunnan (new)

Most distinct amongst the rowans, this Chinese/Burmese species, closely related to S. insignis, has comparatively huge foliage composed of great fat, thick textured, glossy, dark green leaflets with pale glaucous undersides. Large flat heads of white flowers are followed by small usually creamy-white fruits. Makes a large shrub or small tree eventually. Quite striking!

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Sorbus harrowiana ex NW Burma (new)

Most distinct amongst the rowans, this Chinese/Burmese species, closely related to S. insignis, has comparatively huge foliage composed of great fat, thick textured, glossy, dark green leaflets with pale glaucous undersides. Large flat heads of white flowers are followed by small usually creamy-white fruits. Makes a large shrub or small tree eventually. Quite striking!

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Sorbus harrowiana ex NW Burma, from pink fruited (new)

From rare pink fruited trees of this Chinese/Burmese species. Closely related to S. insignis, this has comparatively huge foliage composed of great fat, thick textured, glossy, dark green leaflets with pale glaucous undersides. Large flat heads of white flowers are followed by small usually pink fruits. Makes a large shrub or small tree eventually. Quite striking!

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Sorbus hedlundii GWJ 9363 (new)

A collection from E Sikkim at 2950m asl, which has a wash of particularly persistent white hair on the upper side of the large leaves and are brilliant white underneath. Early growth has striking bronze veins on leaf undersides. White flowers are followed by small brownish green fruit. A tough, hardy small to medium sized tree. A superlative whitebeam.

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Sorbus hedlundii KR 1687 Narrow form

A distinctly narrow crowned form, selected from a batch of his own Bhutanese wild source trees by Keith Rushforth himself. This would make a superb street tree or small to medium sized garden tree where space is restricted. As usual the leaves are large with vivid white undersides, showing contrasting bronze veins. Tough and easy. A superlative whitebeam.

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Sorbus hedlundii KR1810a

A superb clone of the species, originally collected in Bhutan by Keith Rushforth, with extra large foliage up to 25cm long and 15cm wide. A rare and very fine whitebeam making a small to medium sized hardy tree, the new foliage particularly white, expanding to show bronze veins underneath. White flowers are followed by brownish green fruit.

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Sorbus helenae EN3088

Very closely related to S. harrowiana, S. insignis and S. keenanii and like them this rarity makes a rowan with bold foliage. Collected from the top of Emei Shan, Sichuan, this makes a shrub or small tree with comparatively large pinnate leaves from fat buds on thick twigs. Bunches of white fruit, which are usually slightly larger than its close relatives.

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Sorbus hemsleyi

A superb 'new' species being introduced to the UK in only 1992 from China. The foliage is clearly a Whitebeam, but is narrow and curled, showing the bright white underside well. The new leaves are even whiter, having a layer of hairs on the upper side, and the autumn colour is a rich yellow. Makes a small to medium sized narrow, compact, upright tree.

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Sorbus keenanii NJM 13.050 (syn. S. insignis) (new)

A collection from Manipur at just under 2400m asl. A superlative Rowan from NE India and Burma with bold pinnate leaves up to 25cm long, composed of glossy green narrow leaflets, glaucous beneath and turning red in early winter. Creamy-white flowers in summer are followed by large heads of small red fruit which last until the following spring. Hardy.

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Sorbus keenanii x wattii NJM 13.123 (new)

From 3000m on Japfü Peak, Nagaland, NE India, this is probably this previously unknown hybrid combination. Found as a shrub on an exposed ridge, this will be a small tree in cultivation. Very shiny rich green pinnate foliage, pale white-green on the underside, turning to deep red and orange in the autumn. Fruit unseen as yet.

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Sorbus keissleri NJM 11.004

Our recent collection from Leigong Shan, Guizhou of this rare and distinct hardy Chinese species. Sweetly scented white flowers in spring followed by green and red globular fruit like little crab apples. Makes a hardy large shrub or small tree with multiple ascending branches for any reasonable soil. Splendid red and orange autumn colour.

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Sorbus keissleri NJM 11.056 (new)

A recent collection from Fanjing Shan, Guizhou of this rare and distinct hardy Chinese species. Sweetly scented white flowers in spring followed by green and red globular fruit like little crab apples. Makes a hardy large shrub or small tree with multiple ascending branches for any reasonable soil. Splendid red and orange autumn colour.

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Sorbus keissleri NJM 11.060 (new)

Our recent collection from Fanjing Shan, Guizhou of this rare and distinct hardy Chinese species. Sweetly scented white flowers in spring followed by green and red globular fruit like little crab apples. Makes a hardy large shrub or small tree with multiple ascending branches for any reasonable soil. Splendid red and orange autumn colour.

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Sorbus ligustrifolia NJM 09.203

Found on a high ridge at 2040m on Tay Con Linh mountain, N. Vietnam, looking directly into S.E. Yunnan, this particularly unusual species has slim, simple, relatively thick textured, glabrous foliage, emerging copper red, turning green on both surfaces then to red autumn tints. White flowers followed by heavily brown speckled green fruit. A tree to 13m at this location.

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Sorbus ligustrifolia NJM 10.062

From the peak at 2417m on Tay Con Linh Mountain, N. Vietnam, looking directly into S.E. Yunnan, this particularly unusual species has small, relatively thick textured, glabrous foliage, emerging copper red, turning green on both surfaces, then to red autumn tints. Clusters of white flowers followed by heavily brown speckled green fruit. To 6m at this location.

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Sorbus matsumurana Clone 1

A great rarity in cultivation, this shrubby species from the mountains of Japan is conspicuous in habitat in autumn due to its glowing autumn colour. Here it makes a slow growing dense shrub that may eventually reach 3m, with distinctive deep red buds covered in a glaucous bloom. Pinnate leaves turn red in autumn and fruit are bright orange-red.

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Sorbus matsumurana Clone 2

A great rarity in cultivation, this shrubby species from the mountains of Japan is conspicuous in habitat in autumn due to its glowing autumn colour. Here it makes a slow growing dense shrub that may eventually reach 3m, with distinctive deep red buds covered in a glaucous bloom. Pinnate leaves turn red in autumn and fruit are bright orange-red.

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Sorbus megalocarpa var. cuneata (new)

An unusual species from China with conspicuous cream flowers opening uniquely before the leaves in spring, the fruit being the same size and colouring of small partridge eggs. New leaves emerge red in spring and often assume similar colouring in autumn. This variety is easier in sites prone to late frost. A small tree eventually, for ordinary soil.

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Sorbus megalocarpa var. megalocarpa

An unusual whitebeam relative from China, remarkable for its conspicuous cream flowers opening before the leaves in spring, and the fruit being the same size and colouring of small partridge eggs. New leaves emerge red in spring and often assume similar colouring in autumn. Makes a large shrub or small tree eventually, for any ordinary soil in sun or part shade.

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Sorbus needhamii NJM 11.005

This is the first reintroduction from the type locality on Leigong Shan summit, Guizhou, China. Named after Edward Needham who first collected it this makes a sturdy small whitebeam with fairly slim foliage, green above and white beneath with many closely packed parallel veins. Clusters of white flowers in summer followed by bright red berries.

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Sorbus paniculata NJM 13.067 (new)

From Manipur, NE India; the first introduction to Western cultivation, as far as is known. Regarded as distinct by the leading expert on Himalayan Sorbi, this forms a small tree with conspicuously white woolly new shoots and leaves; the hair falling later. White flowers in spring followed by brown fruits. Hardiness untested as yet, but possibly not for the coldest areas.

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Sorbus paniculata NJM 13.092 (new)

From Nagaland, NE India; the first introduction to Western cultivation, as far as is known. Regarded as distinct by the leading expert on Himalayan Sorbi, this forms a small tree with conspicuously white woolly new shoots and leaves; the hair falling later. White flowers in spring followed by brown fruits. Hardiness untested as yet, but possibly not for the coldest areas.

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Sorbus parvifructa Clone 1

A recently named species, originally collected in SE Tibet by Keith Rushforth in 1997. This is an attractive rowan with slender twigs, multiple small leaflets, up to 14 per leaf, and small hard soft-pink fruits. Makes a hardy small tree.

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Sorbus pseudovilmorinii SBEC 974 Clone 2

Regarded as one of the finest of the rowans and very closely related to S. vilmorinii, this is far more widespread in W. China than the latter, though much rarer in cultivation. Making a highly attractive large shrub or small tree with ferny foliage; the leaves with up to 14 pairs of leaflets, turning fiery shades in autumn. Crimson fruit slowly turn white and hang till Nov.

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Sorbus pseudovilmorinii x aria

A most unusual hybrid between a Chinese Mountain Ash and our native Whitebeam, with leaves half way between being pinnate and entire. Raised by Maurice Foster in Kent, this makes a small hardy tree with heads of white flowers in ealry summer and clusters of red berries in autumn.

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Sorbus randaiensis BSWJ 156

The true species, only introduced from Taiwan's mountain forests in recent years. A close relative of the excellent S. commixta, this has narrower, glossier and more numerous leaflets. A freely fruiting small tree bearing heavy crops of shiny orange-red fruit.

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Sorbus rosea SEP 492

Found in NE Pakistan in 1983, this is very closely related to S. cashmeriana and differs from it principally in having more red pigment throughout the plant. A small tree with deeper pink flowers than S. cashmeriana, the fruit are slightly smaller, but start pale pink in Aug and turn to dark pink by Nov. Early autumn colour in Sept is better, being red and orange

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Sorbus wardii KW 21127

A genuine Kingdon Ward collection of this unusual Himalayan whitebeam. This makes a distinctly upright, columnar, small to medium sized tree to at least 9m with erect branching, therefore good for tight spaces where a pale foliage tree is desired. Leaves emerge grey-downy and turn green above and pale whitey-grey beneath. Globular amber fruits.

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Sorbus yuana Clone 1

Introduced from China in 1980, this remains rarely cultivated outside of botanic gardens. A fine 'new' introduction, forming shapely conical trees with stiffly ascending branches and foliage with prominent veins and pale undersides. Leaves turn golden-yellow in autumn and contrast with the rich red fruits and the spring flowers are a good white. Very hardy and easy.

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Sorbus yuana Clone 2

Introduced from China in 1980, this remains rarely cultivated outside of botanic gardens. A fine 'new' introduction, forming shapely conical trees with stiffly ascending branches and foliage with prominent veins and pale undersides. Leaves turn golden-yellow in autumn and contrast with the rich red fruits and the spring flowers are a good white. Very hardy and easy.

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Speirantha convallarioides

An unusual 'Lily of the Valley' relative from SE China, with scented starry white flowers nestling amongst the evergreen leaves, on stems to 30cm. Spreads gently to form a patch. Leafy soil in shade/semi-shade.

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Stachyurus 'Rubriflorus' (new)

A form of this beautiful spring flowering deciduous shrub where the normally primrose-yellow flowers are red in bud, opening pink-tinged-primrose. They hang in rigidly pendulous racemes all along the bare branches in March. Handsome foliage with pointed tips. Best in full sun to promote heavy flowering, though perfectly happy in semi-shade. Easy and hardy.

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Stachyurus chinensis 'Celina' (new)

A selected form of this exceptional deciduous large hardy shrub. Dark purple-brown branches are exquisitely strung along their bare lengths in early spring with rigidly pendulous racemes up to 13cm long, of small primrose-yellow flowers. Foliage is handsome in form with a long tapering tip.

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Stachyurus praecox

A glorious sight if grown well. Thousands of stiffly pendulous racemes of tiny, soft primrose-yellow cup shaped flowers adorn a mature plant in early spring; March or even earlier. Very young plants will also flower well. I think it's best to plant this medium sized shrub in a sunny site to promote strong flowering, though it is rather shade tolerant. Easy and hardy.

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Stachyurus praecox 'Petra' (new)

A glorious sight if grown well, this is a selected form. Stiffly pendulous racemes of tiny, soft primrose-yellow cup shaped flowers adorn the bare branches in early spring; March or even earlier. Plant this medium sized shrub in a sunny site to promote strong flowering, though it is rather shade tolerant. Easy and hardy, though watch out for late frosts when young.

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Stachyurus salicifolius

An evergreen species from W China with graceful arching growth and, as its name suggests, long, very narrow, willow like leaves, bronze when expanding. Stiffly drooping racemes of pale yellow flowers in early spring. Makes a medium sized shrub for any reasonable soil. Worth planting purely for the marvellous foliage.

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Stachyurus yunnanensis (new)

An evergreen species, perfectly hardy in cultivation, this forms a medium sized shrub with foliage resembling a Leucothoe, being oblong, leathery and slightly pewtered green, sometimes flushed red and with a satin sheen. Flowers are primrose-green in stiffly drooping spikes up to 8cm long, spread down the branches in in early spring.

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Stauntonia purpurea (new)

A strong growing evergreen climber from the mountains of Taiwan, with foliage composed of up to 5 leaflets and clusters of richly coloured, deep-purple flowers, shaped like pixie's caps, borne in late spring. Elongated, purple, deliciously edible fruit follow in autumn. The foliage and flowers of this species are daintier than some other species. For a sheltered site.

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Stauntonia sp. NJM 09.198

My collection from nearly 2000m on Tay Con Linh mountain, Ha Giang Province, N. Vietnam. An evergreen climber with compound palmate foliage. Seed was procured from rotting fruit found on the forest floor of this very seldom visited mountain, so this could be something very interesting. Try this on a sheltered wall, not too cold.

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Stauntonia sp. NJM 10.133

Found near Fan Si Pan mountain, N. Vietnam at just over 2000m asl, very near the Chinese border, this formed an evergreen climber with compound palmate foliage with up to 8 leaflets. The yellow fruit with deliciously sweet flesh were up to 10cm long. Try this on a sheltered wall, not too cold.

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Stauntonia sp. NJM 10.153

Found in woodland near Ban Khoang, N. Vietnam, 1771m asl, this handsome evergreen climber bore leaves to 20cm across with five leaflets, the veins deeply impressed. The sweet fleshed fruit were up to about 12cm long. Flowers not yet seen so identification impossible so far. I could throw an unlikely name at it to sell it, like some others, but shan't.

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Stauntonia yaoshanensis HWJ 1024

Originally collected as Holboellia grandiflora, this evergreen twining climber was found in N. Vietnam at 1900m alt. Compound foliage with 3 to 7 dark green leathery leaflets is a backdrop for clusters of pale-yellow tinged 2cm long scented flowers. This would be best tried in a sheltered, not too cold position. It's done very well in N Wales and the Pacific North West.

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Stewartia pteropetiolata NJM 10.107

Collected on the slopes of Fan Si Pan mountain, N. Vietnam at 1900m. A semi-evergreen small tree with leaves emerging red-tinted in spring before turning dark glossy green, the petioles of which are distinctly winged. Flowers are up to 4cm across and resemble the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, white with a yellow centre. Leaves of this once used to make tea!

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Stewartia sinensis

A superlative Chinese tree with exceptionally beautiful bark. This hardy, deciduous, small to medium sized tree has stone cold, paper thin, pinkish coloured bark that darkens to an earthy red-pink in autumn and peels off to reveal the pale beige new layer - GORGEOUS. White Camellia-like, fragrant flowers are seen in summer. For not too dry, light acid soil. Superb in woodland.

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Stipa tirsa (new)

Horsetail Feather Grass. From Europe and Temperate Asia, this is a drought tolerant, hardy and highly attractive fine textured grass. Reaching 60cm in flower, the silvery-cream inflorescences dance in the wind. Sun and well drained soil.

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Styrax americanus Kankakee form (new)

A medium sized upright shrub for lime-free soil. Masses of bell-shaped white flowers seen in early summer have narrow reflexed petals and hang on slender stalks with up to four in a cluster. This is a preferred Northern form of the species. Probably best in the UK with a warm summer position, though perfectly hardy.

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Styrax formosanus var. formosanus

A species from the mountains of Taiwan, closely related to S. japonicus, but with the lovely pendant, white, bell-like flowers exquisitely scented, like Jasminum polyanthum. A real collector's piece for good lime free soil. Only introduced in the 1990's it is perfectly hardy and likely to make a small tree only, though more upright than typical S. japonicus.

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Styrax japonicus

A hardy and elegant small Japanese deciduous tree requiring lime free soil. Best planted where one can look up under the fan-like branches to admire the thousands of pendulous, white, yellow centred, bell like flowers dripping from their undersides in June.

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Styrax japonicus 'Pendulus'

A distinctly weeping form of this small Japanese deciduous tree, with thousands of pendulous, white, yellow centred, bell like flowers dripping from the undersides of the branches in June. Hardy. Requires lime free soil,

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Styrax japonicus 'Sohuksan' (syn. 'Emerald Pagoda')

Originally found on Sohuksan Island, South Korea, this form of the species has substantially bigger flowers and leaves than the typical Japanese form and is more tree like. The foliage is also thicker textured, darker glossier green and more ovate in form, with the flowers reaching up to 3cm across and lightly scented. A superlative cultivar, for lime free soil.

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Styrax japonicus 'Wespelaar'

From the superb Belgian arboretum of the same name, this form has broad foliage in 'Fargesii' fashion, emerging green and turning brownish-purple. White flowers have dark stalks and calyces and appear en-masse in June. A striking new form, the original garnering much attention. A small deciduous tree for lime free soil, best out of the hottest driest sites.

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Styrax japonicus Benibana group

A hardy and elegant small Japanese deciduous tree requiring lime free soil. Best planted where one can look up under the fan-like branches to admire the thousands of pendulous, pink, bell like flowers dripping from their undersides in June.

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Styrax japonicus var. fargesii Guiz 216

A South Western Chinese collection of this very appealing small deciduous tree. In this form all parts are larger than the more typical Japanese type. Masses of pendulous, white, yellow centred, bell like flowers, fully 2.5cm across and STRONGLY fragrant, drip from the undersides of the branches in June. Leaves to 15cm long by 7.5cm wide! For lime free soil.

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Styrax obassia

Grown as much for the superb large orbicular foliage as it is for its conspicuous racemes of white flowers, this deciduous Japanese small tree is suited to a site in lime free soil, with shaded roots. The underside of the foliage is pale and softly hairy and the fragrant bell-like flowers are seen in June in long terminal racemes. A superb member of the genus.

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Styrax odoratissimus

A newly available species from China producing terminal racemes of sweetly scented white flowers with conspicuous yellow stamens in early summer. Will probably reach about 6m in a sheltered, open woodland position or equivalent. Leaves of a moderate size. Needs a well drained, moist, lime-free soil.

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Styrax shiraianus

In cultivation for many years, this Japanese large shrub or small tree remains a rarity. The unusual looking obovate or orbicular leaves are coarsely toothed or lobed in the upper half and downy beneath. Short densely hairy racemes of white funnel shaped flowers are seen in June. For good, moist, lime free soil in sun or semi-shade.

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Styrax sp. NJM 11.013 (new)

Found high on Leigongshan, Guizhou, SW China, this was a small tree to perhaps 6m, amongst such delights as Magnolia sprengeri, Acer flabellatum, Euonymus hamiltonianus etc, etc. It's very hard to key out Styrax species from China with any accuracy, so lets just say that this is an interesting and beautiful white flowered small tree for lime free soil.

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Styrax wuyuanensis (new)

A recent introduction from China, this is an upright shrubby tree to only 3m tall, with comparatively large white flowers dangling from the branches en masse in May. From Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces at around 2000m, this is hardy in cultivation.

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Succisa pratensis (new)

Devil's bit scabious. A UK native of damp grassland with domed deep lavender scabious flowers seen in late summer/autumn. It is tolerant of drier sites however and can be used in any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade. Height 40cm. The food plant of the Marsh Fritillary butterfly and the Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth. Also good for bees, hoverflies and other butterflies.

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Succisa pratensis Early form

Devil's bit scabious. A native of damp grassland with domed deep lavender scabious flowers, in this early form seen in June/July. It is tolerant of drier sites however and can be used in any reasonable soil in sun or semi-shade. Height 40cm. The food plant of the Marsh Fritillary butterfly and the Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth. Also good for bees, hoverflies and other butterflies.

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Succisella inflexa (new)

Pale lavender, rounded, but otherwise scabious-like flower-heads on 60cm branched stems rise clear of the narrow foliage from June to Sept. Appreciates reasonable soil that doesn't dry excessively. Hardy. Sun.

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Succisella inflexa 'Frosted Pearls' (new)

On branched stems, from June to Sept, pinkish buds open to globose white flower heads with a palest lavender tinge. 60cm stems rise clear of the foliage. Appreciates reasonable soil that doesn't dry excessively.

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Swertia bimaculata PAB 8845 (new)

Collected in Guizhou, SW China, this gentian relative from the Eastern Himalaya to China makes an easy annual or biennial from 30cm to 1m high. Masses of white flowers with dark purple and yellow green spotting in summer. Rarely offered.

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Sycopsis sinensis

A member of the Witch Hazel family from central China, this dense, evergreen, medium to large upright shrub is rarely seen, though has a distinct and handsome appearance, and is perfectly hardy. The flowers come as early as February and March and are petal less, though pleasing in their colouring, being clusters of yellow, red-anthered stamens.

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Symphytum cordatum (new)

An unusual comfrey from E. Europe, this Carpathian endemic species has different and splendid broad heart shaped foliage and clusters of primrose-yellow flowers in spring. A creeping, relatively low growing species, found in light woodland in nature.

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Syneilesis aconitifolia

Emerging wonderfully hairy in spring, exquisitely and deeply divided, umbrella- like leaves to 30cm. A splendid foliage plant with a creeping habit. 1m+ if it flowers! Good for well drained, humusy shade.

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Syringa komarowii subsp. reflexa (new)

One of the finest of all lilacs, this very hardy and tolerant Central Chinese large deciduous shrub reaches 3 to 6m tall on many stems. Large rough oval leaves are up to 20cm long and cascades of long pendulous tapering flower clusters up to 20cm long are composed of purplish-pink flowers, whitish within, seen in late May and June. Very free flowering.

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Syringa pinnatifolia (new)

Try and catch out your most haughty botanical and horticultural friends with this one. A species of lilac from NC China with relatively short completely pinnate leaves. Small nodding panicles of scented white flowers in May. Makes a deciduous hardy shrub to about 2.5m tall.

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Syringa tomentella

This large growing lilac from W. China is grown for its broad terminal panicles of sweetly scented lilac-pink flowers with white throats that appear in late May and June, when your average S. vulgaris cultivars are finished, extending the lilac season. Makes a large specimen up to about 4m high, with a broad crown. Bone hardy and easy.

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Syringa x laciniata

A lovely dwarf shrub with deeply dissected little leaves, reaching about 1m high. Small panicles of lilac flowers produced in May. Grown here since the 17th century. but rarely seen. Hardy and easy in any ordinary soil.

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Taiwania cryptomerioides (new)

A magnificent conifer from N Burma, N Vietnam, SW China and Taiwan, where it makes trees up to 50m high, though a much smaller thing here. The largest so far in the UK is 21m tall, though it is rarely seen. A very conical tree with drooping branchlets densely clothed in glaucous-green sickle shaped foliage in the style of Cryptomeria. For a sheltered site.

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Tasmania (syn. Drimys) lanceolata

A slender, upright, medium sized, evergreen shrub with attractive copper tinted new growth and numerous small, creamy white flowers in April/May. The slim, relatively small dark green leaves contrast with the purple-red stems and are aromatic if crushed. Best with some shelter. From cold areas of SE Australia and Tasmania.

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Taxodium huegelii NJM 09.037 (syn. T. mucronatum)

The Mexican Swamp Cypress is such a fabulously charismatic tree in the wild where it forms a slightly more pendant branch habit than its American cousin and trees of vast trunk sizes can be found. Kew has a 100yr old specimen, so it's hardy. Easy at pond edge or in ordinary well drained soil. Seed for these was collected in Coahuila State.

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Tetradium austrosinense NJM 09.215

A new introduction to cultivation, collected in the mountains of N. Vietnam. A particularly attractive member of the genus, probably forming a small tree under UK conditions. Handsome pinnate leaves flush with red tints, have striking ruby-red petioles and rachis, and the leaflets on the upper growth are pink-red on the reverse. Flowers late summer.

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Tetradium daniellii

A neglected but invaluable fast growing small to medium sized hardy tree from the far east. Corymbs of flowers borne in late summer/early autumn, creamy white, pungently scented and attractive to all manner of beneficial insects, giving way to fat clusters of burgundy seed capsules. Large pinnate leaves and smooth grey bark.

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Tetradium daniellii Korean form (new)

A superior form of this fast growing small to medium sized hardy tree from the Far East. Corymbs of flowers borne in late summer/early autumn, creamy white, pungently scented and attractive to all manner of beneficial insects, giving way to fat clusters of burgundy seed capsules. Large pinnate leaves, turning yellow in autumn, and smooth grey bark.

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Tetradium ruticarpum

A fine, relatively new addition to our gardens. This species, from a wide area across Eastern Asia, makes a fast growing small to medium sized deciduous tree. The pinnate foliage has ruby red petioles and rachis and has an arresting, pungent aroma when brushed. Heads of small pale flowers in late summer followed by very attractive clusters of bright red fruit.

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Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'

This form of this mega-exotic looking gem has immensely impressive foliage, spectacularly massive with great claw like lobes. Grow it in a sheltered site where it should reach 4m. It will be fairly hardy there but will shoot strongly from the roots if cut back by cold, or secateurs. It will also sucker a fair bit when established but these are easily removed. Fabulous.

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Tetrapanax papyrifera 'Rex'

This form of this mega-exotic looking gem has immensely impressive foliage, spectacularly massive with great claw like lobes. Grow it in a sheltered site where it should reach 4m. It will be fairly hardy there but will shoot strongly from the roots if cut back by cold, or secateurs. It will also sucker a fair bit when established but these are easily removed. Fabulous.

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Teucrium fruticans 'Compactum'

A dwarf, neat, compact form of the Mediterranean 'Shrubby Germander'. Makes a small evergreen shrub for a sunny well drained spot against a wall. The stems and undersides of the leaves are covered in very fine white hairs giving the plant a greyish appearance and the flowers are pale blue in terminal racemes throughout summer.

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Thalictrum uchiyamai

Splendid, relatively new, tall species. Soft violet flowers with yellow stamens in summer on upright stems to 2m over attractive divided foliage. Light shade or sun; not too dry.

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Thamnocalamus crassinodus 'Kew Beauty'

A real gem and one of my favourite bamboos. Billowing masses of exquisite tiny leaves on upright culms that emerge with a blue-grey bloom and turn deep-red with good light. Very tightly clump forming with a height of about 4m. Best with some shade, especially in hot dry areas. Hardy to about -15c. Very beautiful and highly recommended by me.

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Tilia 'Harold Hillier' (new)

A vigorous hybrid lime raised in 1973 and thought to be T. japonica 'Ernest Wilson' x T. mongolica. A medium sized tree of conical habit, the leaves are rather maple-like with three prominent lobes and bristle-tipped teeth, dark green above and grey-green beneath, turning to a rich butter-yellow in autumn. Clean of aphids in summer. 16m high after 40 years.

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Tilia 'Moltkei'

Very rarely seen, this hybrid lime is a beauty. The broad rounded foliage is grey underneath and clothes the arching, slightly pendent branches fully, giving a luscious healthy appearance. Vigorous growth, large clusters of fragrant flowers in late summer and simple unpretentious elegance. A medium to large tree, best suited to the bigger garden.

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Tilia 'Varsaviensis' (new)

Discovered in Warsaw in the early 20th century, this is either a cultivar or hybrid of Tilia tomentosa, forming a fast growing hardy tree with a conical dense crown form and leaves green above and grey beneath. The very strongly scented cream-yellow flowers are seen in summer and cast their fragrance on the wind. Very tough and easy, making a large tree eventually

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Tilia aff. oliveri Hers 2808

A Tilia collected quite some time ago in China, this great rarity has survived in only one or two places in the UK, until now. Desired by tree buffs who've seen it, this is an elegant thing with heart shaped foliage, grey under, on a crown of sweeping, semi-weeping branches. Fully hardy and easy, like most Tilia. A small to medium size tree.

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Tilia amurensis from Korea (new)

A tree with a large distribution in the Far East and up to 35m tall in the wild. In this country one can expect a medium sized tree to about half that height. Some forms from the north end of the wild range are difficult to grow here, but this clone from Korea makes a healthy tree with a rounded crown, cordate foliage and heavily scented flowers in late summer.

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Tilia callidonta (new)

Particularly rare in cultivation and also in the wild, this collection was introduced from Sichuan. A tree to 20m in the wild with a broad crown where well lit, though maybe smaller in cultivation. The leaves are dark green above and covered below with a dense layer of greyish green tomentum.

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Tilia caroliniana subsp. heterophylla (syn. monticola) (new)

Very distinct from all other species in the white hairy backs to the huge foliage that emerge with a deep maroon tint, making a truly spectacular sight. From the Eastern USA and one of the finest limes in cultivation, but very rarely seen and for no good reason. Splendid specimens can be seen at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens in Hampshire. Up to 20m or so.

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Tilia chinensis - from Muli, Sichuan

A rarely encountered species with rather unique flaking bark on older trees. Leaves are broadly ovate, sharply toothed with slender-pointed tips and red petioles. Makes a distinct, small to medium sized tree. Hardy and easy, though very rarely seen. This is genuine wild source material from Muli, Sichuan, China

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Tilia chinensis F30558

A rarely encountered species with rather unique flaking bark on older trees. Leaves are broadly ovate, sharply toothed with slender-pointed tips and red petioles. Makes a distinct, small to medium sized tree. Hardy and easy, though very rarely seen. This is a genuine original George Forrest collection, propagated vegetatively.

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Tilia chingiana

One of the many Chinese species, introduced into Ireland in 1938, but remaining very rare in cultivation. A hardy small to medium sized deciduous tree to perhaps 11m tall. Flowering in late July and early August. Foliage large on vigorous young trees, settling down to ovate leaves with small tufts of hair in the vein axils beneath. As elegant as any Tilia.

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Tilia concinna (new)

A new species, only described in 2012, but found by Hers in China in 1919 and cultivated at Kew for 70 years. This is a tree to about 15m tall with a broad rounded crown and bold cordate foliage, green above and grey beneath. Close to both T. oliveri and T. miqueliana.

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Tilia cordata 'Len Parvin'

A relatively new form of our native Small leaved lime discovered growing in the Wye Valley by the above named. The leaves are the smallest found so far for this species (but not obvious on young vigorous atypical growth) creating a delicate and beautiful effect. Typically lovely fragrant flowers in late summer. Easy, hardy, tolerant.

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Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica A&L 16

A rare lime from the Caucasus and N. Iran with conspicuously bristle-toothed somewhat rounded foliage and very prominent long, pale bracts attached to the inflorescence of scented cream flowers, which make quite a feature around flowering time in summer. Makes a strong growing, healthy medium sized tree in the UK. This clone collected N. Iran.

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Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica ex N. Iran (new)

A rare lime from the Caucasus and N. Iran with conspicuously bristle-toothed somewhat rounded foliage and very prominent long, pale bracts attached to the inflorescence of scented cream flowers, which make quite a feature around flowering time in summer. Makes a strong growing, healthy, medium sized tree in the UK. This is a Bob Cherry collection.

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Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica NJM 13.029 (new)

A rare lime from the Caucasus and N. Iran with conspicuously bristle-toothed somewhat rounded foliage and very prominent long, pale bracts attached to the inflorescence of scented cream flowers, which make quite a feature around flowering time in summer. Makes a strong growing healthy tree to about 20m in the UK. This collection from the Azerbaijan Caucasus.

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Tilia endochrysea

A very recent and exciting introduction from China. This lime has distinct foliage that emerges dark crimson, then expands to a deep green with a contrasting pale whitish-grey underside. Leaves are entire, shallowly lobed or dentate, especially on the upper half and flowers are seen in late summer. A tree to 20m in the wild, but could be smaller here; we shall see.

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Tilia henryana 'Kerdalo' (new)

A great improvement on the usual form in the UK, growing comparatively strongly and upright to at least 10m, with a healthy, full, rounded crown. Very distinct and exceptionally beautiful foliage emerges softly hairy and carmine tinged, expanding to glossy green with very conspicuous bristle like teeth. Autumn flowering; sweetly scented. A Pan Global' introduction.

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Tilia henryana var. subglabra

An unusual glabrous or nearly glabrous form. Exceptionally beautiful foliage emerges carmine tinged, expanding to glossy green with conspicuous bristle like teeth. Autumn flowering with sweetly scented cream flowers.

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Tilia japonica Large leaf form (new)

This material came from China, originally collected in Nanjing, where the mainland population of T. japonica occurs, and looks quite different from the smaller leaved forms of the Japanese type. A small to medium sized hardy tree with fairly broad heart shaped foliage. Masses of scented creamy white flowers in summer.

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Tilia japonica Small leaved form

Another of my all time favourite trees, eventually becoming an elegant specimen. This small to medium sized species from E Asia is closely related to our native Small leaved lime, but differs in its beautifully extended leaf tips. Creamy white flowers and bracts are borne in such profusion as to almost cover the foliage in late summer. Easy, hardy, tolerant.

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Tilia kiusiana

This great rarity from Southern Japan is like no other Lime tree, and to be honest does not look like one, until you take a close inspection. Tiny pale-green leaves are typically shaped but miniature, being only 4--6cm long, on a slow growing shrub or eventual small tree. A fine old specimen grows near here at Westonbirt arboretum. Easy and hardy.

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Tilia mandshurica

A most handsome lime from NE Asia with really luxuriant, broad foliage: large, heart-shaped, with a slight pewter tinge, downy on expansion and greyish beneath. A specimen of this really stands out in the late Harry Hay's Tilia collection in Surrey. In this country it makes a small to medium sized tree to 15m tall. Very rarely encountered.

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Tilia maximowicziana

A superb Japanese species, though rarely encountered, this is a medium to large tree at maturity with broad, dark-green, deeply veined foliage, hairy above and below, especially on expansion. Very heavily scented flowers cast their fragrance on the wind, travelling a fair distance in my experience. The Tilia of choice for bee keepers in the know. Exceptionally fine.

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Tilia mexicana CDR 1318

An attractive hardy species collected in the early 1990s by Compton, D'Arcy and Rix from, wait for it, Mexico. Fast growing, hardy and like most limes is proving to be an elegant beauty. Long drawn out foliage emerges with a deep red tinge and the branches are slightly pendent. Probably a medium sized tree eventually, as were wild plants we found in '06.

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Tilia mongolica

Mongolian Lime. A fairly small leaved species, very distinct in having 3--5 lobed, highly serrated leaves, especially on young plants. This attractive feature is enhanced by excellent yellow autumn colour. Scented flowers in summer on a small compact tree with dense, red tinged twigs in winter. Easy and hardy.

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Tilia nobilis KR 226

A Keith Rushforth collection from Emei Shan, Sichuan, China. This was found as a tree to about 10m tall with large rounded leaves up to 14cm long. The conspicuous flower bracts are just as long and the fruit are huge (for a Tilia) at up to 1cm long and nearly globose. Slow and steady growth from this one, but hardy and extremely rare to boot.

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Tilia oliveri

Such a beauty I named my first son after it; well not quite. A gorgeously elegant, semi-weeping Chinese species usually only medium sized, but can get larger if drawn up by other trees. This is an exceptional form with very fine, plain, apple-green leaves with pale silvery-grey undersides, naturally free of aphids. As easy to grow as any lime.

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Tilia paucicostata

The real deal; most are wrongly named. An attractive dainty lime, closely related to both Tilia japonica and our native Tilia cordata, this Chinese species differs from both in having ovate leaves with a pronounced oblique base. The leaves are also blessed with an attractive acuminate tip and conspicuous teeth. Scented white flowers in summer.

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Tilia tomentosa 'Orbicularis'

A rare lime raised in 1868 from seed collected from T. 'Petiolaris', this is slightly more weeping in habit and has grey, as opposed to silver, undersides to the very glossy leaves. The crown on this large tree is also more conical than 'Petiolaris'. Highly scented flowers in summer. No honeydew problems with this one. This is also known as Tilia x orbicularis.

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Tilia tuan var. chenmoui

A recently introduced Chinese lime, this should make a medium sized tree in the UK, with exfoliating bark and very beautiful, comparatively drawn out foliage, softly silvery-grey tomentose above and below on newest growth, retaining it only on the underside. Hardy and late frost resistant. A strong growing specimen from the original intro at Wisley looks very fine.

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Tilia x stellata (new)

A lime from the Eastern USA with big, bold foliage; a natural hybrid of T. caroliniana subsp. heterophylla and T. americana. In this country it makes a medium sized tree, quite striking on account of its very large, luxuriant, coarsely toothed leaves. Hardy, easy, though rarely seen in the UK. Young vigorous plants bear huge foliage. Expect a tree to 20m eventually.

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Toona sinensis

A striking, hardy, medium sized tree of fast growth and sub-tropical appearance. Large handsome, pinnate leaves, often bronze when young, smooth grey bark and large drooping panicles of fragrant white flowers in late summer. The young leaves and shoots are edible and have a very interesting flavour; widely grown in China as a vegetable. Any ordinary soil.

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Toxicodendron sp. (Rhus) (new)

Found at 2500m asl in Far Northern Burma this was a small tree with pinnate foliage and rich red autumn colour. Once part of Rhus, Toxicodendron was split off relatively recently, though some would still treat this as Rhus. Untried for hardiness as yet.

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Trachelospermum asiaticum 'Theta'

A new form, raised by Sean Hogan in Oregon, with very narrow leaves. Otherwise as the type, with sweetly scented, creamy, windmill shaped flowers borne in abundance in summer on a strong evergreen climber. This species is slightly hardier than T. jasminoides, but both are at their best on a wall in sun or semi-shade..

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Trachelospermum jasminoides 'Wilsonii'

A form from China with variably narrow and attractively veined evergreen leaves. Very fragrant white flowers, turning cream, 2.5cm across and 'windmill' shaped, borne in July and August on self clinging stems to 7m high, though not particularly fast growing. Warm sunny wall, or conservatory in very cold areas. Not quite as hardy as T. asiaticum, but is perfectly OK in most places.

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Trachycarpus princeps

The holy grail to most hardy palm enthusiasts. Hailing from Yunnan Province, SW China this is arguably the most attractive of all Trachycarpus species, with fronds of perfect form, their undersides washed with bluey-white. Even the upper surface is of a paler tone. Proven very growable and hardy so far in the UK.

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Trachycarpus wagnerianus

A hardy palm growable just about anywhere in the UK and in reality a form of T. fortunei with smaller leaves more rigidly and elegantly held than it's bigger cousin, therefore vastly superior in windy locations, and always looking fabulous. Grows on a single hairy trunk, and responds well to rich soil, though very tolerant.

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Tradescantia crassifolia F&M 258 (new)

Collected in the Sierra de Pachuca, Mexico, this is an exceptional species, for its foliage alone. Shining, succulent green leaves are translucent as far as the lower leaf surface, producing a hologram-like effect. Pink flowers are produced over a fairly long period in summer. A tuberous species with potential hardiness, dying back completely in winter, though easy in a pot overwintered under glass.

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Tradescantia crassifolia F&M 258 (new)

A Mexican collection from Hidalgo State at 2800m alt. A low growing species with amazing fleshy foliage that is semi-translucent and reflects light in a most bizarre fashion. Purple pink, three petalled flowers in summer. A deciduous species from high altitude, so should possess some hardiness, though not tested here.

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Triadica sebifera (syn. Sapium sebiferum) (new)

The Chinese Tallow Tree is only suitable for the mildest areas in the British Isles, but the handsome broadly ovate or rounded, abruptly pointed foliage can turn to a brilliant red in autumn. Making a small tree with slender racemes of greenish yellow flowers. Very rarely seen in this country.

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Tricyrtis macrantha var. macranthopsis

A Japanese toad lily with arching, pendulous stems, clad in handsome deeply veined foliage. Rich yellow hood/bell-like flowers with heavy red spotting in their mouths appear at the junction of leaf and stem in late summer. Best where it can arch over and be appreciated. For humusy soil in shade, semi-shade, not too dry. Hardy. Height 45cm.

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Trifolium ochroleucon

A giant clover making bushy clumps of grey-green foliage, topped by very large heads of scented creamy-primrose-yellow flowers in summer. Height 60cm. For sun or semi-shade. Non-invasive and great for insects.

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Trifolium repens 'Isabella'

A new improvement on 'William' with glowing deep maroon-red foliage, each leaflet marked with green at the base, making vigorous spreading patches topped by light-pink flowers in June. Tough, tolerant and altogether easy ground cover for sun or part shade, looking great with blue-grey things etc.. Very easy to control.

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Tripterygium wilfordii NJM 11.029

A recent collection from Leigongshan, Guizhou, China, of this unusual scandent, climbing, deciduous shrub. Reaching up to 6m if allowed, this has foliage green above and glaucous beneath and bears elongated rusty tomentose panicles of greenish-white flowers in autumn, followed by attractive 3 winged capsules. Hardy and easy in sun or semi-shade.

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Tritonia disticha subsp. rubrolucens

Branching spikes of montbretia-like flowers in a really very lovely soft, deep warm pink in late summer. Height 60cm. Sunny position, hardy.

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Trochodendron aralioides

An unusual, slow growing large shrub or small tree from the far east with a distinctive and attractive growth habit, being layered in its branching. Dark evergreen leaves on spreading branches with fascinating green flowers in erect racemes in May. Kind of like a 'tree ivy' in a weird and wonderful kinda way. Very handsome, hardy and suited to most soils.

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Tropaeolum smithii (new)

A richly coloured form of this variable species native of humid parts of S America, with vermilion coloured flowers produced in late summer and autumn. Petals are deeply incised with jagged teeth. Foliage is deeply lobed. Though often grown as an annual this will form tubers if happy.

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Tropaeolum speciosum

Well known and much admired, this is the Flame flower that covers so many yew hedges in northern English and Scottish gardens. An herbaceous perennial climber reaching up to 3-4m in one season and bearing a multitude of scarlet flowers over pretty bright green foliage in summer. Bright blue berries follow. The roots need to be cool and just moist.

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Tulbaghia 'Cariad' (new)

A relatively new hybrid of relatively short stature with sweetly scented flowers both day and night. The foliage is rather narrow and lies down fairly quickly, allowing the 20cm scapes to show of the flowers well, which are palest pink with a brownish-orange central corona. Deciduous and therefore probably quite hardy. For sun and well drained soil.

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Tulbaghia 'Cosmic'

An evergreen T. violacea hybrid with relatively tall flower stems and flowers in mottled shades of purplish-pink and white, each with a conspicuous yellow corona. For sun.

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Tulbaghia 'John May's Special'

A giant T. violacea, with larger mauve flowers on 80cm stems. As hardy as they get, given sun and drainage.

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Tulbaghia 'Moshoeshoe' (new)

Selected from seedlings in 2003, this evening scented hybrid flowers from May till October with sweetly scented lavender coloured flowers with muddy orange centres on stems to 30cm. For sun and well drained soil.

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Tulbaghia violacea 'Silver Lace'

Striking variegated foliage, purple flowers in summer. Sun and some protection in prolonged cold spells.

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Tulbaghia violacea pallida

White flowers to 50cm on a vigorous plant. A form of the hardiest species. Sunny, warm position.

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Ugni molinae 'Villarica Strawberry'

Introduced by Paul Barney from Pucon, Chile, this slightly smaller leaved, hardier form of the species is a welcome addition to horticulture and gives more of us the chance to grow this fab fruiting plant outside permanently. A small evergreen shrub myrtle with lightly scented white bells in summer, followed by distinctive and delicious dark red fruits in autumn. To 1.5m.

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Ulmus 'Frontier' (new)

A fine modern hybrid elm from the USA with a very good resistence to Dutch Elm Disease (rated 4 out of 5). Forming an upright, pyramidal crown to probably more than 10m tall, with glossy, relatively small foliage that turns, very unusually, to a rich burgundy in autumn. Very hardy and easy in the UK.

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Ulmus 'Regal' (new)

Very resistant to Dutch Elm Disease (rated 4 out of 5), this American raised hybrid elm makes a strong growing upright tree, of columnar form when young, less so in maturity. The canopy is not dense, as in many other elms, creating a light canopy and dappled shade. Foliage is narrowly elliptical, 5 to 10cm long. Hardy and easy.

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Ulmus bergmanniana (new)

A widespread Chinese elm, closely related to our native Wych Elm, but with a good moderate resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. There has been a tree at Kew since 1973, which still thrives to this day. Not a fast growing species, this forms a handsome broad crowned tree and has reached 10m at Kew so far. Extremely rare in cultivation.

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Ulmus chenmoui (new)

A newly available very cold hardy Chinese elm with a very high degree of resistance to Dutch Elm Disease, making a tree to 20m tall. Foliage is comparatively large, grey green and with deep red tints in autumn. The bark exfoliates in flakes.

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Ulmus davidiana var. davidiana (new)

A very hardy Eastern Asian elm resembling the American elm, U. americana, in all but ultimate size, reaching only 15m at maturity and forming a dense canopy. Leaves emerge dark-red, turning green and rough hairy. This has a good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease and even young specimens have been seen to recover from infection in the UK.

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Ulmus laevis (new)

One of the most disease resistant elms, due to its bark being highly distasteful to Elm bark beetles, and virtually never infected in Western Europe. It makes fine specimens in France, where the seed for these was collected and enjoys a moist to even rather wet soil, tolerating seasonal complete inundation with ease. A large vigorous tree, very rarely seen in the UK.

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Ulmus parvifolia

An elegant, medium-sized, graceful looking Elm with a rounded head of branches. The small, rich-green, glossy foliage is held fresh until the New Year. Suitable for virtually any soil or site, this species is very resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, though is rarely seen or offered for sale.

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Ulmus szechuanica (new)

A Chinese species, very rarely seen in cultivation, this forms a smallish tree with a spreading, umbrella-like crown, usually under 10m tall though can be taller. Found to show resistence to Dutch Elm Disease in American trials. Leaves obovate with a drawn out tip emerge dark red, becoming green.

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Ulmus uyematsui

New to cultivation in the West, this elm from the mountain forests of Taiwan is extremely hardy and will probably make a medium sized tree here to perhaps 20m. Many Asian elms show remarkable resistance to Dutch Elm Disease so this could prove long lasting here. The elliptic to oblong-elliptic leaves emerge flushed red in spring and the grey bark is fissured.

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Ulmus villosa ex Kashmir (new)

From seed collected in Kupwara, Kashmir, this beautiful and distinctive elm is now offered for wider planting in cultivation. Very rarely seen this has a low susceptibility to Dutch Elm disease and a fine specimen grows at Kew, etc. It makes a large tree with semi-pendent branching and slightly grey green leaves that emerge with a red tint. The bark is almost cherry-like.

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Vaccinium cylindraceum (new)

From the Azores, yet fully hardy, this semi-evergreen species holds foliage until well into the New Year. Short racemes of very showy cylindrical flowers are borne on the branchlets in late summer and autumn; red in bud opening pale yellow-green, strongly tinged red, followed by bloomy blue-black berries. For lime free soil.

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Vaccinium glaucoalbum

Beautiful in new growth in spring, this evergreen gently suckering small to medium sized shrub for acid soil reaches about 1.5m. New foliage emerges icy blue and turns to grey-green above with a vividly blue-white underside. Racemes of cylindrical pale pink flowers surrounded by silvery white bracts in May and June. Blue-bloomy, black berries often persist into winter.

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Valeriana alliariifolia PAB 3001

Scented pale-pink flowers rise above the foliage on slender stems in summer. Leaves are bold rounded and cordate. A hardy Caucasian perennial collected from Bakuriani, Georgia. For sun or semi-shade, not too dry.

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Valeriana montana PAB 7654 (new)

From the Apuseni Mountains of Romania, this is a fairly dwarf species reaching only 50cm high, with white, pink or lilac flowers in summer. Hardy, tough, for sun or semi-shade.

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Vancouveria chrysantha

An Epimedium relative from the western USA, with soft yellow flowers on wiry stems in early summer over attractively red-tinted, lobed foliage. Height 30cm. Leafy soil in semi-shade. Rather more drought tolerant than many Epimedium.

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Verbena officinalis var. grandiflora 'Bampton'

Discovered in Bampton, Devon, this is a vigorous European variety of our native Vervain, but also with the most attractive red-purple foliage. The long loose heads of mauve-pink flowers open continuously over a long period from Jun to Oct or even November and are a great attraction to butterflies. Sun and well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

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Veronicastrum 'Apollo'

A striking late summer perennial of upright form, bearing multiple slim long spikes of lilac-blue flowers July to Sept on strong stems to 1.5m. Foliage is arranged attractively in whorls up the stems. Sun or semi-shade.

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Veronicastrum virginicum 'Fascination' (new)

A striking late summer perennial of upright form, bearing multiple slim long spikes of violet-blue flowers July to Sept on strong stems to 1.2m. Foliage is arranged attractively in whorls up the stems. Sun or semi-shade.

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Viburnum atrocyaneum Hird 113

An unusual Himalayan, hardy evergreen species of dense bushy habit, deserving of wider attention, making a medium to large shrub. Very pretty small glossy foliage, copper tinted when young. Bunches of small steely blue fruit lasting into winter. Any reasonable soil in sun/semi-shade. These are from wild collected seed.

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Viburnum awabuki

A large, noble evergreen shrub for a reasonably sheltered position, bearing strikingly glossy, rich green, leathery leaves. Older leaves turn bright red before falling. Large conical heads of fragrant white flowers in late summer followed by red fruits turning black. Often erroneously called V. odoratissimum.

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Viburnum betulifolium

A large hardy shrub grown for the superb display of vivid redcurrant-like fruits, seen en-masse in autumn and lasting well after leaf drop, though the corymbs of white flowers in June and July beautiful. Initially upright, the branches spread out to show flower and fruit. These are seed raised, therefore good for pollination purposes. Plant at least two for better fruit set.

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Viburnum betulifolium AM clone

A large hardy shrub grown for the superb display of vivid redcurrant-like fruits, seen en-masse in autumn and lasting well after leaf drop, though the corymbs of white flowers in June and July are also fine. Initially upright, the branches spread out to show flower and fruit. This is Wilson's original Award of Merit clone from 1936. Plant another clone for better fruit set.

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Viburnum carlesii 'Charis' (new)

A well known spring flowering shrub of medium size, bearing deliciously sweetly scented flowers in tight clusters. In this extremely vigorous form the rounded flower heads have red buds and open pink, turning finally to white. Easy on any ordinary soil, in sun or semi-shade.

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Viburnum carlesii 'Diana' (new)

A well known spring flowering shrub of medium size, bearing deliciously sweetly scented flowers in tight clusters. In this form the rounded flower heads have red buds and open pink, and the new foliage is purple tinged. A slow growing compact form. Easy on any ordinary soil, in sun or semi-shade.

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Viburnum davidii 'Angustifolia'

An unusual slim leaved form of this otherwise commonly grown and tough as old boots evergreen dwarf shrub. Glossy, dark, deeply veined, narrow foliage and flat heads of white flowers in summer, making a good ground cover in sun or shade. This is a strangely rare form.

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Viburnum erubescens VdL 4122 (new)

A medium to large sized shrub with deciduous elliptic foliage and paniculate, pendent clusters (rather unusual in Viburnum) of fragrant white flowers tipped pink (in this rare clone), borne in summer. Fruit start red and turn black. Collected on the Milke Danda, Nepal. Any ordinary soil, but best sheltered in the coldest most exposed gardens.

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Viburnum furcatum

An aristocratic species from Japan and Taiwan, making a large, deciduous, hardy shrub. White lacecaps in May, followed by red fruits, turning black. The broad, potentially large, conspicuously veined foliage turns to brilliant scarlet and reddish-purple over a long period in late summer and autumn. These, grafted onto V. lantana, will grow in limy soil, as it does here!

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Viburnum harryanum (new)

A medium sized evergreen Chinese species of distinct appearance, having very small, rounded, dark green leaves, only 1 to 2cm long. White flowers borne in spring followed by shining black fruit. A useful, different and highly attractive textural shrub.

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Viburnum hoanglienense (new)

Officially described as recently as 2011, this new species was collected on Fan Si Pan Mt, N. Vietnam, where it grows at up to 3000m asl. A shrub to 2m in the wild, but shorter in cultivation, with densely hairy and conspicuously deeply veined foliage. Terminal cymes of cylindrical white flowers in July, followed by clusters of scarlet fruit.

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Viburnum mullaha KR 10609 (new)

A very unusual Himalayan to South East Asian species, forming a large shrub with ovate deciduous foliage 9 to 15cm long, with a deeply dentate upper half. Clusters of white flowers in May/June, followed by initially yellow then brilliant red berries. This collection from Arunachal Pradesh.

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Viburnum nudum 'Pink Beauty'

This fine deciduous shrub from the eastern USA deserves wider planting. Dark, glossy green leaves look like they should be evergreen, but colour deep-red in autumn. Long stalked clusters of creamy-white flowers borne in June, followed by pink fruit, turning blue-black. Thrives in most soils apart from thin and limey, in sun or semi-shade. To about 2m tall.

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Viburnum odoratissimum var. arboricola

Collected in the mountains of Taiwan, this is a distinct variety of the species with oblong foliage of a thinner texture than the species and with a matt upper surface. The white flowers are in conical branched terminal heads in late summer, followed by a mass of red berries if pollinated. Makes a large shrub eventually, totally hardy here even through 2010.

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Viburnum plicatum f. tomentosum 'Shoshoni' (new)

A smaller growing form selected in the USA and reaching about 2m max at maturity. The tiered arrangement of the branches smothered on their upper side with pure white lacecap heads of flower creates a classically beautiful effect. The ovate leaves turn to rich reddy purples in autumn. Easy on most soils.

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Viburnum propinquum var. propinquum Guiz 222 (new)

An unusually broad leaved and particularly attractive form of this unusual species from Guizhou, SW China. Foliage is broadly elliptic, deep glossy green, distinctly three veined in the style of Cinnamomum and evergreen, sitting on red tinted petioles and stems. A medium sized dense rounded shrub with slightly tiered branching, suited to a sheltered site.

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Viburnum setigerum

A fine shrub with many attractive features, though rarely encountered in gardens or trade. A medium sized deciduous species with an open habit; the foliage emerging metallic blue-red-green, turning through shades of green and then finally orange-red in autumn. Clusters of juicy, orange-red berries, turning scarlet, follow the white early summer flowers.

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Viburnum x globosum 'Jermyns Globe'

A tough small to medium sized evergreen shrub of dense, rounded habit, with flat topped clusters of small white flowers in spring (and other times of year), followed by bluish black berries. Sun or semi shade. A hybrid between the common V. davidii and the obscure V. calvum.

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Viburnum x hillieri 'Winton'

A lovely, medium size, semi-evergreen shrub with dangling panicles of sweetly scented white flowers borne profusely in June, followed by red fruit turning black. The narrowly oval leaves are copper tinted when young, and suffused bronze-red in winter. Easy in most soils and positions.

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Vitex agnus-castus

'Chaste Tree'. This very long cultivated medium-sized deciduous shrub is strangely not often encountered. It has aromatic fingered foliage and produces erect racemes of fragrant violet-blue flowers en-masse at the end of the shoots in Sept and Oct when most other things are long over. Sun, well drained soil. Long used in herbal medicine to great effect.

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Vitex agnus-castus 'Silver Spire'

A white flowered form of the 'Chaste Tree', a splendid late summer/autumn flowering medium-sized deciduous shrub, covering itself in a mass of fragrant, elongated inflorescences. The aromatic leaves consist of 5-7 narrow leaflets and are attractive in themselves. Generally grown against a warm wall, but not particularly tender given full sun and well drained soil.

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Vitex agnus-castus var. latifolia

'Chaste Tree'. This very long cultivated medium-sized deciduous shrub is strangely not often encountered. It has lovely aromatic foliage and produces erect racemes of fragrant violet-blue flowers en-masse at the end of the shoots in Sept and Oct when most other things are long over. This is a good hardy form with broader leaflets. Sun, well drained soil.

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Vitis coignetiae

This has to be one of the most strikingly bold climbing foliage plants. Splendid dinner plate sized, textured leaves cover the strong growing stems in summer, turning to shades of scarlet and crimson in autumn. Can reach to the top of tall trees or cover outhouses or walls. The best autumn colour is achieved in poor soils.

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Vitis vinifera 'Incana'

The Dusty Miller Grape is a form of the edible grape with leaves covered in fine downy white hairs, especially on new growth, giving them a pale grey-green appearance. Very effective on red brick walls or with purple leaved plants or as a backdrop to Mediterranean style planting. Tough and easy with delicious black grapes in late summer.

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Vitis vinifera 'Spetchley Red'

A selection of the common grape made at Spetchley Park, Worcs., for its superb bright red autumn colour. Typical vigorous growth and handsome foliage, suitable for covering all manner of things. Hardy. Best in sun though happy in semi -shade.

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Watsonia 'Tresco Dwarf Pink'

A tough British hybrid. Sugar pink flowers in summer. Height 60cm. Sun and shelter, not too dry.

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Weigela middendorffiana

A truly tasteful Weigela of compact growth, with beautiful soft-yellow, bell shaped blooms with dark orange markings on the lower lobes, seen in April/May. It enjoys a sheltered and semi-shaded site. Not my favourite plants, but this one is a beauty.

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Wisteria brachybotrys 'Murasaki-kapitan'

A vigorous climber bearing short-ish racemes of strongly fragrant, comparatively large violet-blue flowers, the largest in the genus. Foliage and shoots covered in silky hairs, especially when young, when they are conspicuous. Best in a sunny position in well drained soil, and trained to form a strong framework of flowering spurs.

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Wisteria brachybotrys 'Okayama' (new)

A Japanese selection with deep mauve buds that open soft pinkish-mauve and are particularly strongly fragrant. A vigorous climber bearing short-ish racemes of large individual flowers; the largest in the genus. Foliage and shoots conspicuously silky hairy, especially when young. Best in a sunny position in well drained soil, and trained to form a strong framework of flowering spurs.

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Wisteria brachybotrys 'Shiro-kapitan'

Previously sold as W. venusta, this is a vigorous climber bearing short-ish racemes of strongly fragrant, very large white flowers, the largest in the genus. Foliage and shoots covered in silky hairs, especially when young when they are conspicuous. Best in a sunny position in well drained soil, and trained to form a strong framework of flowering spurs.

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Wisteria brachybotrys 'Showa-beni'

The pinkest Wisteria, this Japanese selection will produce short racemes of very large, fragrant pea-flowers in spring. Foliage silky hairy, especially when young. Strong growing, this is best trained on a sunny wall or other suitable support and pruned hard to form a framework of flowering spurs over time. For a well drained soil, but not particularly fussy.

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Wisteria floribunda 'Alba'

Racemes of white pea flowers up to 60cm long hang in curtains from a well trained specimen of this Japanese Wisteria. Very vigorous growth should be trained into a framework of branches on a wall or pergola, and then hard pruned every year to produce good flowering spurs. Either that or send it up a tree and let nature take it's course.

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Wisteria floribunda 'Alba' ('Snow Showers')

A old, slightly later flowering Japanese selection. Racemes of white pea flowers up to 60cm long hang in curtains from a well trained specimen. Very vigorous growth should be trained into a framework of branches on a wall or pergola, and then hard pruned every year to produce good flowering spurs. Either that or send it up a tree and let nature take it's course.

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Wisteria floribunda 'Geisha' (new)

A particularly attractive white and blue bicoloured selection of the Japanese wisteria with typical long racemes. Best hard pruned to achieve a good branch framework. Best in a sunny site in most ordinary soils. Grafted plant = early flowering.

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Wisteria floribunda 'Multijuga'

A clone of this Japanese species selected for its very long racemes, up to 1m or more, so best suited to pergolas or dangling from bridges etc, though great on walls if well pruned. Fragrant flowers are lilac, tinged blue-purple. Best hard pruned to achieve a good branch framework. Best in a sunny site in most ordinary soils. Grafted plant = early flowering.

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Wisteria floribunda 'Rosea'

A form of the Japanese Wisteria with long, tapered racemes of pale-pink, scented flowers as the leaves expand in May. Like any Wisteria, should be lightly pruned in summer and hard pruned in winter to 3 buds, forming over time a framework of flowering branch spurs. Suitable for covering arches, walls, bridges, pergolas or even full sized trees if you let it.

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Wisteria sinensis 'Prolific'

One of the finest forms of the classic Chinese wisteria. This was selected for its abundant heads of highly fragrant, blue-violet, drooping racemes, slightly longer than typical, borne on the bare branches in Spring. This will flower from a very young age as it is a grafted clone. Prune lightly in summer and then hard in winter to form a framework of branches.

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Woodwardia orientalis

A spectacular evergreen fern originating from the Himalaya to Eastern Asia with most attractive deeply divided and tapered fronds up to 1.5m long. A mass of bulbils can be produced on the upper surface of fertile fronds, giving an easy means of propagation. Requires a sheltered position in semi-shade in milder gardens. This could be W. proliferum.

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Woodwardia unigemmata (new)

One of the very finest ferns of all for UK gardens, this magnificent beast from the Himalaya to Japan bears evergreen fronds up to 2m long, which emerge bright copper-red, turning deep green. They start fairly erect, eventually becoming horizontal under their own weight, unless grown on a bank, as often in nature, where they will cascade downwards. Hardy.

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x Amarcrinum memoria-corsii 'Howardii'

A hardy and easily grown bigeneric hybrid of Amaryllis belladonna and Crinum moorei, being far more rewarding for most of us than Amaryllis, yet with many of the same qualities. A mound of strap shaped leaves gives rise in late summer and autumn to upright stems to 75cm, topped by warm light-pink scented trumpets in clusters of up to ten. For full sun.

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x Gordlinia grandiflora

Very new to the UK, this hybrid between Franklinia alatamaha and Gordonia lasianthus combines the hardiness of the former, but without any of it's finicky qualities, and most of the evergreen quality of the latter. The big white camellia-like flowers are larger than either parent and seen in late summer and autumn when some of the foliage turns rich red.

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x Rhaphiobotrya 'Coppertone'

A hybrid evergreen large shrub or small tree, the parents being Rhaphiolepis indica or R. x delacourii and Eriobotrya deflexa. The glossy deep green foliage emerges copper tinted throughout spring and early summer, with terminal panicles of pale pink flowers produced at the same time. For a sunny protected spot against a wall or mild areas.

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Xanthoceras sorbifolium

A far too rarely seen large, upright, deciduous shrub from N China. Its leaves are dainty like a Rowan and the flowers kinda remind one of a Horse Chestnut, lovely as they are, borne in erect panicles, white with a carmine eye in June. Flowering is usually very heavy. Very hardy and suitable for either acid or alkaline soils in sun.

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Xanthocyparis nootkatensis 'Green Arrow' (new)

One of those exceptional trees for form alone. Think of the form 'Pendula' with it's curtains of pendulous scale like foliage, but on a much narrower tree. Strongly upright with the pendulous branches held closer to the trunk, yet still splaying out here and there in a most attractive fashion. A very hardy Cupressus relative for most soils and positions.

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Xanthocyparis vietnamensis (new)

Discovered in only 1999 in N. Vietnam this distinctive small to medium sized conifer bears both juvenile and adult foliage even into maturity. Conical when young, becoming more irregular and even flat topped in maturity with horizontal branches. Not for the very coldest northern areas, but surprisingly hardy, even through winter 2010. A plant of great rarity.

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Xanthorhiza simplicissima

'Yellow Root'. An attractive dwarf, gently suckering shrub usually reaching about 70cm, with a thicket of erect stems bearing delicate pinnate foliage. Loose drooping panicles of tiny, deep purple flowers in March, and bronzy-purple autumn colour. Best in moist, even clay soil.

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Zabelia triflora (syn. Abelia triflora) (new)

Dense clusters of sweetly scented white, tinged pink flowers borne in June on this large, upright, graceful, hardy, deciduous shrub from the NW Himalaya.

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Zantedeschia 'White Giant'

New to the UK and available here first, this is a truly giant form of Arum lily with huge white speckled green foliage reaching up to 1.5m high and large white spathes on stalks to 2m! This will reach its largest proportions in a moist site (or water), though you'll find it easy in any site, dry or wet. Quite magnificent.

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Zantedeschia 'White Giant'

New to the UK and available here first, this is a truly giant form of Arum lily with huge white speckled green foliage reaching up to 1.5m high and large white spathes on stalks to 2m! This will reach its largest proportions in a moist site (or water), though you'll find it easy in any site, dry or wet. Quite magnificent.

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Zantedeschia albomaculata (new)

An elegant smaller species from marshy spots on the mountainsides of the summer rainfall area of Eastern South Africa. The arrow shaped leaves are heavily spotted with white and the flower spathes are cream, blotched purple at their bases, and seen in mid to late summer. Although hardy, this appreciates a long growing season to flower well. 60cm.

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Zanthoxylum ailanthoides (new)

A collection from Taiwan of this subtropical looking small tree. This has grown here for years, even through the intense cold of 2010. Forms a very distinctive wide spreading low crown up to about 7m tall, with long pinnate foliage, very large compared to other species. White flowers in autumn. The trunk is armed with pyramidal woody spines.

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Zanthoxylum armatum NJM 11.080 (new)

Found growing at the woodland edge in Central Guizhou, SW China this species of 'Sichuan pepper' formed shrubs to 2m tall with rather striking, comparatively large, heavily armed, shiny pinnate leaves. Red fruit clusters open to reveal shiny black seeds. Try this in a sheltered site, perhaps with wall protection, perhaps not. It's probably perfectly hardy.

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Zanthoxylum piperitum - purple leaved

Most desired amongst those who've seen it, this is the extremely rare rich purple leaved form of the Japan pepper. A culinary shrub in that country, with highly aromatic and ornamental diminutive pinnate foliage on a medium sized hardy, spiny stemmed and spiny leaved deciduous shrub. Difficult to propagate and unavailable elsewhere.

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Zanthoxylum piperitum var. inerme (new)

The Japan Pepper is an obscure medium sized deciduous shrub closely related to Sichuan pepper. Used by the Japanese for culinary purposes, this form has far less in the way of spines. The pinnate leaves are very pretty with small leaflets. I love the wonderful fragrance emitted when brushed past or fondled and the red fruit clusters are attractive.

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Zanthoxylum simulans

'Sichuan Pepper'. A hardy deciduous spreading shrub to small tree, armed to the hilt with spines, even on the very aromatic, graceful leaves. Crush them (without impaling yourself) to release a heady fragrance. Small bunches of little reddish fruit in autumn have edible seed cases, much used in Asia as a very distinct spice. Great in stir-fries.

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Zelkova carpinifolia Multi-limbed form

One of the most distinctive and magnificent of all hardy deciduous trees. Rarely planted, this, the most commonly grown form in cultivation for over two centuries, has a most characteristic growth form. Bark is smooth pale-grey and the short trunk soon breaks into a multitude of upright stems forming sinuous shapes with maturity. Elm-like leaves turn to gold and russet.

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Zelkova carpinifolia NJM 13.014 (new)

A Tertiary relic, surviving in the Caspian and Caucasian forests. Seed for these was found in southern Azerbaijan, where the species grows rather like a Fagus, very different from the clone long cultivated in the UK. Bark is mainly smooth pale-grey, and the elm-like leaves turn to gold and russet shades in autumn. A long lived large hardy tree for most positions.

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Zenobia pulverulenta 'Blue Sky'

A very lovely and neglected little shrub from E North America for lime-free soil and a semi-shaded site. This form has very bright blue-green young foliage, and bloomy young shoots, with dangling clusters of aniseed scented white flowers, like a large Lily of the Valley, in June/July.

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Zingiber mioga 'Crug Zing'

A Wynn-Jones intro from Cheju Island, S. Korea, with pale pink flowers. Japanese folk eat the fresh young shoots and even the flower buds, though you'll probably want to leave them for their exotic effect in the garden. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm or more and in autumn small, orchid-like flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Zingiber mioga 'Crug Zing'

A Wynn-Jones intro from Cheju Island, S. Korea, with pale pink flowers. Japanese folk eat the fresh young shoots and even the flower buds, though you'll probably want to leave them for their exotic effect in the garden. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm or more and in autumn small, orchid-like flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Zingiber mioga 'Dancing Crane' (new)

Bold white markings on the leaves of this variegated form of the hardy Japanese edible ginger known as Mioga. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm and in autumn small, orchid-like, pale yellow flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Zingiber mioga 'Dancing Crane' (new)

Bold white markings on the leaves of this variegated form of the hardy Japanese edible ginger known as Mioga. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm and in autumn small, orchid-like, pale yellow flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Zingiber mioga 'White Feather' (new)

Subtle white feathering on the leaves of this variegated form of the hardy Japanese edible ginger known as Mioga. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm and in autumn small, orchid-like, pale yellow flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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Zingiber mioga 'White Feather' (new)

Subtle white feathering on the leaves of this variegated form of the hardy Japanese edible ginger known as Mioga. This woodlander sends stems of luscious foliage to 60cm and in autumn small, orchid-like, pale yellow flowers are seen at ground level. For good humusy soil in semi-shade.

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